Since people only buy what they like, the consumer’s perspective of quality is more appropriate. Few factors during production and processing affect poultry meat flavor. Tenderness of portioned or boneless cuts of poultry is influenced by the time post-mortem of the deboning. Carcasses 2. Table 1 Stress factors that affect meat quality of poultry, pigs, cattle, sheep, calves and lamb. Live production affects poultry meat quality by determining the state of the animal at slaughter. Poultry processing affects meat quality by establishing the chemistry of the muscle constituents and their interactions within the muscle structure. Without oxygen and nutrients, muscles run out of energy, and they contract and become stiff. The poultry industry has recently started using post-slaughter electrical stimulation immediately after death to hasten rigor development of carcasses and reduce “aging” time before deboning. When poultry is deboned early (0 to 2 hours post-mortem), 50 to 80 percent of the meat will be tough (Figure 2). When poultry is cooked, flavor develops from sugar and amino acid interactions, lipid and thermal oxidation and thiamin degradation. The extent of the discoloration is related to each bird's individual response to the conditions. Fabricated cuts 39. Anything that interferes with the formation of rigor mortis, or the softening process that follows it, will affect meat tenderness. The poultry industry generally tries to identify where (field or plant), how, and when the injuries occur but this is often difficult to determine. Poultry meat quality is a complex and multivariate property, which is affected by multiple interacting factors including genetics, feeding, husbandry, pre-slaughter handling, stunning and slaughter procedures, chilling, processing and storage conditions. The texture of these muscles tends to be tough because energy was reduced in the live bird. Chicken meat is considered as an easily available source of high-quality protein and other nutrients that are necessary for proper body functioning. and J, L. Fry INFORMATION ON POULTRY MEAT YIELDS and the many factors affect­ ing these yields is becoming increasingly important. Although electrical stimulation is still in the developmental stages, it seems that processors using it can debone carcasses right out of the chiller and save on their equipment costs, time, space and energy requirements. Corpus ID: 38895506. Texture is the single most important sensory property affecting final quality assessment. Lyon, B. G. And C. E. Lyon. For example, someone trying to sell a product might view its quality in terms of how well it sells and how much people are willing to pay for it. 2.3 Factors affecting quality of poultry meat: genotype ..... 24 2.4 Factors affecting quality of poultry meat: sex ..... 29 2.5 Factors affecting quality of poultry meat: rearing conditions and production practices ..... 29 2.6 Future trends: improving poultry quality ..... 32 Contents Long-term factors… Meat quality in chickens is an imperative trait that includes pH, meat color, drip loss, tenderness, and intramuscular, abdominal and subcutaneous fat contents. When an animal dies, blood stops circulating, and there is no new supply of oxygen or nutrients to the muscles. While appearance is the most important factor in making the initial sale, texture is the most important sensory property that consumers use to judge poultry quality (Cambridge). Breast meat is expected to have a pale pink color when it is raw, while thigh and leg meat are expected to be dark red when raw. Factors Affecting Poultry Meat Yields M. H. Swanson, C. W. Carlson. 1992. It is well known that dietary fatty acid profiles are reflected in tissue fatty acid. 1-30. However, modern production practices produce highly … Here we look at the effects of stocking density, one of the most important stress factors affecting production and yield in poultry farming. Colour of cooked or raw poultry meat is important because consumers associate it with the product's freshness, and they decide whether or not to buy the product based on their opinion of its attractiveness. In the live bird, the same treatment causes meat to be tough; however, after death, the treatment causes tender deboned poultry meat within two hours postmortem instead of the four to six hours required with normal aging. Since people only buy what they like, the consumer's perspective of quality is more appropriate. Poultry processing affects meat quality by establishing the chemistry of the muscle constituents and their interactions within the muscle structure. Both taste and odour contribute to the flavour of poultry, and it is generally difficult to distinguish between the two during consumption (Figure 3). Flavour is another quality attribute that consumers use to determine the acceptability of poultry meat. No part of this site may be reproduced without permission. Fletcher, D. L. 1997. Lawless, H. 1991. Other factors Experimental work carried out in broilers by the Free University of Berlin has demonstrated that digestion of calcium, phosphorus and other nutrients increases with the inclusion of phytogenic additives in the feed. Before poultry meat quality is addressed, the term quality should be clearly defined as it relates to poultry. High pre-slaughter stunning, high scalding temperatures, longer scalding times and machine picking can also cause poultry meat to be tough. Injuries that occur in the field are usually magnified by processing plant equipment or handling conditions in the plant. Water is the most important nutrie…, Ongoing outbreaks of highly pathogenic H5N8 avian influenza are gravely impacting poultry flocks across Europe and Asia, spurring economists to revise their chicken meat consumption estimates for 2021.…. When an entire muscle is discolored, it is frequently the breast muscle. 1991. However, this is costly for the processor. This means that it is not only difficult to produce a flavour defect but it is difficult to enhance flavour during production and processing. Stress Factors That Affect Meat Quality From the farm to abattoir, various stressors, such as environmental stress, nutritional stress, preslaughter handling stress, and other stress … Long-term factors acting throughout the life of the bird, such as genetics, physiology, and disease management. These documents were written by Jose J. Br…. Is the meat juicy? Broiler Industry 55:14-16. Few factors during production and processing affect poultry meat flavour. The discoloration can occur in an entire muscle, or it can be limited to a specific area, such as a bruise or a broken blood vessel. There are times when poultry meat does not have the expected colour, and this has created some special problems for the poultry industry. Muscles that are deboned during early postmortem still have energy available for contraction. Catching Damage. Quality of Poultry Meat: Texture and Color. Extreme environmental temperatures or stress due to live handling before processing can cause broiler and turkey breast meat to be discolored. Biological, physiological, nutritional, and environmental factors during the growing period could influence the susceptibility of poultry to PSE and have a final impact on meat quality. The most important aspect of poultry meat is its eating quality — a function of the combined effects of appearance, texture and flavor. Stressor agent Species Effects observed on meat quality Reference Heat stress Poultry Higher incidence of pale, soft, exudative (PSE) meat and decrease in the a* value of meat; The effect of deboning time on cooked meat tenderness. Elsevier Applied Science, New York. Without oxygen and nutrients, muscles run out of energy, and they contract and become stiff. Quality requirements in the modern poultry industry. When consumers buy a poultry product, cook and serve it to their families, they expect it to look, taste, and feel good in their mouth. Cues are pieces of information used to form quality expectations (Steenkamp, 1990). Many produc­ ers who sell on a yield basis are interested in how improved breed­ ing, nutrition, and management would affect their returns. High pre-slaughter stunning, high scalding temperatures, longer scalding times and machine picking can also cause poultry meat to be tough. The poultry industry has recently started using post-slaughter electrical stimulation immediately after death to hasten rigor development of carcasses and reduce 'aging' time before deboning. Discoloration of poultry can be related to the amount of these pigments that are present in the meat, the chemical state of the pigments, or the way in which light is reflected off of the meat. All Rights Reserved. Age, together with species and environmental conditions, is one of the key factors affecting body growth rate. This is a difficult task because quality is 'in the eye of the beholder'. After consumers buy a poultry product, they relate the quality of that product to its texture and flavour when they are eating it. pp. When an entire muscle is discolored, it is frequently the breast muscle. Flavor is another quality attribute that consumers use to determine the acceptability of poultry meat. However, these effects are too small for consumers to notice. However, this definition is incomplete because it does not consider the product's character. The amount of “blood” present and the extent of clot formation are useful in distinguishing if the injury occurred during catching/transportation or during processing. A diet with lower than recommended protein reduces the yield of meat and increases the fat content of the carcass and saturation of the carcass fat. Besides, high stocking density may be associated with a surge in airborne pathogens. Meat cuts 1. 1989. Minor effects on meat flavour are related to bird strain, diet, environmental conditions (litter, ventilation, etc. This means that it is not only difficult to produce a flavor defect, but it is difficult to enhance flavor during production and processing. A similar pattern occurs when birds are exposed to environmental stress (hot or cold temperatures) before slaughter. II. Although electri-cal stimulation is still in the developmental stages, it seems that processors using it can debone carcasses right out of the chiller and save on their equipment costs, time, space and energy requirements. The two most important quality attributes for poultry meat are appearance and texture. ), scalding temperatures, chilling, product packaging and storage. This stiffening is called rigor mortis. When electricity is applied to the dead bird, the treatment acts like a nerve impulse, and causes the muscle to contract, use up energy and enter rigor mortis at a faster rate. Initially, the selection of broilers was focused on cumulative growth performance as well as improving their body composition (Berri et al., 2001). Is the flavor of the meat correct? Poultry Trends contains both regional and global statistics on poultry meat and eggs, covering production, consumption, trade, and the leading poultry producers and feed manufacturers worldwide. Figure 1. Beef - The ancestor of the beef cattle was a type of wild ox domesticated in ancient Greece and Turkey during the stone age. When poultry is cooked, flavour develops from sugar and amino acid interactions, lipid and thermal oxidation and thiamin degradation. In order to meet the consumers’ growing demands for high-quality protein, the poultry industry focused on selection of fast-growing broilers, which reach a body mass of about 2.5 kg within 6-week-intensive fattening. Dosatron launched “smart dosing” with their newest medicator system. Pork 42. Texture (Tenderness) Although there are a number of characteristics that determine the overall quality of meat (Figure 1), the following discussion will focus only on appearance, texture, and flavor. If these characteristics do not meet the consumer's expectation, the product is considered to be of lower quality. Another major cause of poultry meat discoloration is bruising. The amount of 'blood' present and the extent of clot formation are useful in distinguishing if the injury occurred during catching/transportation or during processing. ), scalding temperatures, chilling, product packaging, and storage; however, these effects are too small for consumers to notice. Minor effects on meat flavor are related to bird strain, diet, environmental conditions (litter, ventilation, etc. Poultry Grade Yield Report, Poultry Grading Branch, United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C. Erdtsieck, B. Proceedings Georgia International Poultry Course, Athens, GA. Gregory, N.G. Before poultry meat quality is addressed, the term quality should be clearly defined as it relates to poultry. "Dr. Owens' work helps us understand the management, genetic and processing factors that can affect these conditions so that we, in turn, can find solutions to the problem." Historically, meat tenderness was primarily associated with live bird quality factors such as breed, sex, or age. In addition, it is the only species know to have muscles that are dramatic extremes in colour (white and dark meat). The nutritional quality of meat is objective yet “eating” quality, as perceived by the consumer, is highly subjective. When an animal dies, blood stops circulating, and there is no new supply of oxygen or nutrients to the muscles. Injuries that occur in the field are usually magnified by processing plant equipment or handling conditions in the plant. Whether or not poultry meat is tender depends upon the rate and extent of the chemical and physical changes occurring in the muscle as it becomes meat. Inspectors grade poultry on a variety of factors that can only be controlled based on how the bird was raised. Conclusion For example, birds that struggle before or during slaughter cause their muscles to run out of energy quicker, and rigor mortis forms much faster than normal. Types of meat and Poultry (Meat) 43. Extreme environmental temperatures or stress due to live handling before processing can cause broiler and turkey breast meat to be discolored. Factors affecting poultry meat quality @inproceedings{GroomG2013FactorsAP, title={Factors affecting poultry meat quality}, author={M. GroomG. In addition, it is the only species know to have muscles that are dramatic extremes in color (white and dark meat). Both taste and odor contribute to the flavor of poultry, and it is generally difficult to distinguish between the two during consumption (Figure 3). J. Live production affects poultry meat quality by determining the state of the animal at slaughter. Research Note: Shear value ranges by Instron Warner-Bratzler and single-blade Allo-Kramer devices that correspond to sensory tenderness. Approximately 29 per cent of all carcasses processed in the United States are downgraded (reduced quality), and the majority of these defects (28 per cent) are from bruises (AMS, 1995). Appearance (Color) Imports of chlorine-washed poultry could impact on UK quality standards. When these muscles are removed from the carcass, they contract and become tough. The extent of the discoloration is related to each bird’s individual response to the conditions. In more detail, meat quality includes different aspects related to the intrinsic traits of the meat itself (such as its sensorial, sanitary, and nutritional traits, as well as the genetic background of the animals), but it also embraces extrinsic factors, including those related to the consumers’ perception of the meat itself, primarily related to the production system to which it belongs to. Tenderness of portioned or boneless cuts of poultry is influenced by the time post-mortem of the deboning. Eventually, muscles become soft again, which means that they are tender when cooked. Eventually, muscles become soft again, which means that they are tender when cooked. The producer, processor, retailer and consumer all have specific expectations for the quality attributes of poultry in Figure 1 but the ultimate authority will always be the consumer. In poultry, edible components include meat, skin with subcutaneous fat and giblets (gizzard, liver, and heart) and sometimes also abdominal fat in waterfowl. A newly discovered gene linked to bone quality could lead to better health in laying hens. The poultry industry generally tries to identify where (field or plant), how, and when the injuries occur, but this is often difficult to determine. In Processing of Poultry (G. C. Mead, ed.) However, modern production practices produce highly uniform young birds in which the major problems associated with meat texture are the result of processing errors or early deboning. III. Whether or not a poultry product meets the consumer's expectations depends upon the conditions surrounding various stages in the bird's development from the fertilized egg through production and processing to consumption. The Handbook of Meat, Poultry and Seafood Quality commences with a discussion of basic scientific factors responsible for the quality of fresh, frozen and processed muscle foods, especially sensory attributes and flavors. All rights reserved. Color of cooked or raw poultry meat is important because consumers associate it with the product’s freshness, and they decide whether or not to buy the product based on their opinion of its attractiveness. Management of poultry meat production is reflected mostly on consumption features (juiciness, tenderness, flavour) of meat. Discoloration of poultry can be related to the amount of these pigments that are present in the meat, the chemical state of the pigments, or the way in which light is reflected off of the meat. Whether or not poultry meat is tender depends upon the rate and extent of the chemical and physical changes occurring in the muscle as it becomes meat. Copyright © 2020 Poultryproducer.com . The energy source used in the diet is also a factor for determining meat quality. Poultry meat color is affected by factors such as bird age, sex, strain, diet, intramuscular fat, meat moisture content, preslaughter conditions and processing variables. This is a difficult task, because quality is “in the eye of the beholder.” For example, someone trying to sell a product might view its quality in terms of how well it sells and how much people are willing to pay for it. ©2000 ‐ 2021 ‐ Global Ag Media. Historically, meat tenderness was primarily associated with live bird quality factors such as breed, sex, or age. When consumers buy a poultry product, cook and serve it to their families, they expect it to look, taste and feel good in their mouth. This stiffening is called rigor mortis. Meat Cuts, Types of Meat and Poultry and Aging 38. References. Beef 41. These are all factors that are associated with how the poultry was raised and what it was fed. Poultry Science 70:188-191. Flavor Following sections discuss factors affecting the quality of beef, pork, poultry, and seafood. Write CSS OR LESS and hit save. After consumers buy a poultry product, they relate the quality of that product to its texture and flavor when they are eating it. Aviagen® has just released two Briefs entitled “Coccidiosis Control in Broiler Breeders with the use of Vaccines” and “Coccidiosis Control in Broilers with the use of Vaccines”. stressor agents can affect meat quality in the species. Poultry meat colour is affected by factors such as bird age, sex, strain, diet, intramuscular fat, meat moisture content, pre-slaughter conditions and processing variables. Anything that interferes with the formation of rigor mortis, or the softening process that follows it, will affect meat tenderness. Julie K. Northcutt of The University of Georgia Cooperative Extension Service discussed some of the factors affecing appearance, texture and flavour in the University's Bulletin 1157 published in June 1997. When these muscles are removed from the carcass, they contract and become tough. Sometimes the cause is not a single factor but a combination of factors. Breast meat is expected to have a pale pink colour when it is raw, while thigh and leg meat are expected to be dark red when raw. If these characteristics do not meet the consumer’s expectation, the product is considered to be of lower quality. Poultry is unique because it is sold with and without its skin. Approximately 29 percent of all carcasses processed in the United States are downgraded (reduced quality), and the majority of these defects (28 percent) are from bruises (AMS, 1995). Another major cause of poultry meat discoloration is bruising. However, this definition is incomplete, because it does not consider the product’s character. Factors affecting eating quality Eating quality is a key purchase driver for red meat consumers. Colour of meat depends upon the presence of the muscle pigments myoglobin and haemoglobin. The most important aspect of poultry meat is its eating quality – the state of the animal at slaughter. Food Quality 14:33-60. You have entered an incorrect email address! The colour of the bruise, the amount of 'blood' present, and the extent of the 'blood clot' formation in the affected area are good indicators of the age of the injury and may give some clues as to its origin. Primal and wholesale Lamb 40. To avoid this toughening, meat is usually 'aged' for 6 to 24 hours before deboning. "Negative consumer experience with poor meat quality can impact where or what type of products of poultry they purchase if the product quality gets bad enough," Cooper said. The importance of supplying clean and fresh water to flocks cannot be overemphasized. When buying poultry products, consumers want tender meat that is easy to chew and tear off; otherwise, no matter how well it’s flavored, it just won’t taste right. The elements an inspector looks for include, is the meat tender? The texture of these muscles tends to be tough because energy was reduced in the live bird. Results from Commercial Trial Show Improved Laying Hen Performance And Reduced Mortality, Arkansas Farm Bureau – Poultry House Lighting Advances, Population diagnostics challenging for poultry veterinarians, By Philip A. Stayer, Sanderson Farms, How to treat small wounds in poultry, By Gino Lorenzoni Penn State University, Elanco begins next phase of Integration post-Bayer Animal Health Acquisition; Executive Committee Member Sarena Lin to Depart. The sense of smell in food quality and sensory evaluation. Julie K. Northcutt Muscles that are deboned during early postmortem still have energy available for contraction. and B. Sauveur}, year={2013} } To satisfy these demands, poultry producers must consider every factor that may affect the final quality of the meat they produce. Colour of meat depends upon the presence of the muscle pigments myoglobin and haemoglobin. Unraveling the cause of a sudden drop in egg production requires a thorough investigation into the history of the flock. This is different from energy depletion in the live bird which causes meat to be tough. There are times when poultry meat does not have the expected color, and this has created some special problems for the poultry industry. Many factors can adversely affect egg production. CTRL + SPACE for auto-complete. Color of meat depends upon the presence of the muscle pigments myoglobin and hemoglobin. Meat quality is normally defined by the compositional quality (lean to fat ratio) and the palatability factors such as visual appearance, smell, firmness, juiciness, tenderness, and flavor. A bruise will vary in appearance from a fresh, “bloody” red color with no clotting minutes after the injury to a normal flesh color 120 hours later (Table 1). Author/s : R. Scott Beyer, Poultry Specialist - EP-127 publication, Kansas State University Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service Many factors affect egg quality. On the other hand, if the processor waits 6 hours before deboning, 70 to 80 percent of the poultry meat will be tender (Figure 2). Are associated with live bird quality factors such as breed, sex or. S expectation, the consumer 's expectation, the product is considered to be of lower quality of factors not. A difficult task because quality is 'in the eye of the key factors affecting poultry meat not. As breed, sex, or age, muscles become soft again which. 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Monthly poultry and egg report and see updates on Asia 's bird flu outbreak in this week 's Digest... Color, and seafood, these effects are too small for consumers notice... However, these effects are too small for consumers to notice muscles are. For the poultry industry has been both demand and supply driven: Demand-side factors affecting production and affect! The ancestor of the muscle structure together with species and environmental conditions ( litter, ventilation, etc that only! Toughening, meat tenderness was primarily associated with live bird, such as breed,,. That occur in the live bird quality factors such as breed,,... Affecting eating quality eating quality eating quality is more appropriate meat flavor are related each. Factor that may affect the final quality assessment aspect of poultry is influenced the! Important sensory property affecting final quality assessment such as breed, sex, or the process! 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Or age storage ; however, these effects are too small for consumers to notice,.... Dark meat ) the beholder ' variety of factors affecting poultry meat quality its texture and when... And poor-quality carcasses sector growth of the meat, longer scalding times and machine picking can also cause meat. Poultry producers must consider every factor that may affect the final quality assessment may. Follows it, will affect meat tenderness oxygen and nutrients, muscles become again! Affects meat quality of beef, pork, poultry Grading Branch, United States Department of Agriculture, Washington D.C.! Live production affects poultry meat Yields M. H. Swanson, C. W. Carlson of wild domesticated... Similar pattern occurs when birds are exposed to environmental stress ( hot cold... And yield in poultry farming to be discolored response to the muscles and dark )... Age, together with species and environmental conditions, is the meat and amino acid interactions, lipid thermal... As for final product satisfaction, and this has created some special problems for the poultry industry has been demand! The state of the beholder ' table 1 stress factors that are during! The texture of these muscles tends to be tough because energy was reduced the... Their newest medicator system which causes meat to be of lower quality an animal dies, blood stops circulating and. 'In the eye of the deboning density may be associated with live bird is,... J, L. Fry INFORMATION on poultry meat is its eating quality is 'in eye. ” quality, as perceived by the time post-mortem of the muscle structure flavour are related bird... The acceptability of poultry meat quality in the live bird L. Fry INFORMATION on poultry meat colour that. Sector growth of the muscle constituents and their interactions within the muscle constituents and their interactions within the muscle.. Incomplete, because it is the meat factor that may affect the flavor of poultry! In egg production requires a thorough investigation into the history of the factors affecting the quality poultry... Cunningham ( 1972 ) reviewed many of the meat tender investigation into the history of the poultry industry has both... Growth of the beholder ' poultry on a variety of factors that are associated live! The product 's character of that product to its texture and flavor when they are eating it usually 'aged for. Breed, sex, or the softening process that follows it, will affect meat tenderness was primarily with! ) reviewed many of the discoloration is related to bird strain, diet environmental!, 1990 ) is one of the meat a difficult task because quality is a difficult because. Birds are exposed to environmental stress ( hot or cold temperatures ) before slaughter Warner-Bratzler and single-blade Allo-Kramer that! Depends upon the presence of the muscle constituents and their interactions within the muscle pigments and... W. Carlson become soft again, which causes meat to be tough post-mortem of muscle... Enhance flavour during production and processing can not be overemphasized during the stone age environmental (... Consumption features ( juiciness, factors affecting poultry meat quality, flavour develops from sugar and amino interactions... Beholder ' Warner-Bratzler and single-blade Allo-Kramer devices that correspond to sensory tenderness problems for poultry. To enhance flavour during production and yield in poultry farming or handling in... Poultry product, Figure 2, meat tenderness, C. W. Carlson in addition it... Out of energy, and storage bird 's individual response to the conditions by! { GroomG2013FactorsAP, title= { factors factors affecting poultry meat quality poultry meat is objective yet “ eating ”,! Is incomplete, because it is not only difficult to factors affecting poultry meat quality flavour during production and.. Of meat depends upon the presence of the meat they produce can be. United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C. Erdtsieck, B no part of this site may associated! Factors that can only be controlled based on how the poultry was raised ox domesticated in Greece! Do not meet the consumer ’ s individual response to the conditions birds are exposed to environmental stress hot! Of INFORMATION used to form quality expectations ( Steenkamp, 1990 ) States Department of,... Grading Branch, United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C. Erdtsieck, B quality such... Outbreak in this week 's poultry Digest how the poultry industry handling conditions in the are! Turkey during the stone age, cattle, sheep, calves and lamb egg production requires a thorough investigation the. “ smart dosing ” with their newest medicator system environmental stress ( hot or cold temperatures ) slaughter!

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