A system that exchanges neither matter nor energy with its surroundings. Natural resources that have a sustainable yield or harvest equal to or less than their natural productivity; for example, food crops, timber. Biodiversity in a given area is dependent on many different parameters and the interrelationships between these factors. A group of organisms of the same species living in the same area at the same time, and which are capable of interbreeding. More economically developed country: a highly industrialized country with high average GNP per capita. proposed as good proxies for the diversity and integrity of ecosystems, since they are key elements of the biomass, structure and functioning of ecosystems and can be used as indicators of habitat quality (Vallecillo et al. A group of populations living and interacting with each other in a common habitat. A generic term for heterogeneity. Can be connected to overall diversity. The total gain by consumers in energy or biomass per unit area per unit time through absorption. … You have created 2 folders. Regulating services such as climate, floods, disease, water quality and pollination 3. It includes the concepts of species diversity, habitat diversity and genetic diversity. Introducing Cram Folders! The gain in energy or biomass per unit area per unit time remaining after allowing for respiratory losses (R). ​​Correct use of terminology is a key skill in ESS. A habitat can be a salt marsh, a meadow or a pine forest, but a habitat can also be recognised at the landscape level of a tundra type or a deep-sea mud covering several hundreds of square kilometres. Species diversity is one component of the concept of biodiversity. The condition of an open system in which there are no changes over the longer term, but in which there may be oscillations in the very short term. As human populations increase, land use increases, and wild species have smaller spaces to call home. GM crops are actually responsible for the loss of species diversity; and many of the causes of species loss e.g. For example, a system of harvesting renewable resources at a rate that will be replaced by natural growth might be considered to demonstrate sustainability. Jungle or forest ecosystems are likely to have a higher habitat diversity than desert or tundra ecosystems. Microbial habitats — including soils, rivers, lakes, oceans, on the surface of living and dead things, inside other organisms, on man-made structures, and everything in between — provide nutrients and protect cells from harsh conditions. Biodiversity includes not only species we consider rare, threatened, or endangered, but every living thing—even organisms we still know little about, such as microbes, fungi, and invertebrates. 2 HABITAT DISTRIBUTION, DIVERSITY AND SYSTEMATICS OF MUS SPP. {"cdnAssetsUrl":"","site_dot_caption":"Cram.com","premium_user":false,"premium_set":false,"payreferer":"clone_set","payreferer_set_title":"IB ESS definitions","payreferer_url":"\/flashcards\/copy\/ib-ess-definitions-1953307","isGuest":true,"ga_id":"UA-272909-1","facebook":{"clientId":"363499237066029","version":"v2.9","language":"en_US"}}. The variety of species per unit area. The concepts of functional diversity and composition are complex and often used without an accompanying definition. A system in which both matter and energy are exchanged with its surroundings (for example, natural ecosystems). An area may have a high density of wildlife, but if they are all from a few different species then it would have a low species diversity. Apart from the popular taxonomic groups like birds and mammals there are not enough experts to identify the more obscure and "esoteric" groups. Population... Brine reject can be solved using a method developed by Farid Benyahia. Diversity indices provide more information about community composition than simply species richness (i.e., the number of species present); they also take the relative abundances of different species into account.Diversity indices provide important information about rarity and commonness of species in a community. ENDANGERED (EN) – when it is facing a very high risk of extinction in the wild. To a large extent, the number and definition of these habitat types follows the one used used in the red-list assessments of Finnish species and habitat types from 2000 and … Source Publication: Glossary of Environment Statistics, Studies in Methods, Series F, No. The form in which human population growth rates are usually expressed: crude birth rate – crude death rate/. When it comes to ESS IB, it is very important that you write a good ESS IA. The net habitat diversity effect on individual ecosystem functions and multifunctionality. " But precise answers are seldom needed to devise an effective understanding of where biodiversity is, how it is changing over space and time, the drivers responsible for such change, the consequences of such change for ecosystem services and human well-being, and the response options available. ENDANGERED (EN) – when it is facing a very high risk of extinction in the wild. There are four basic components to every habitat. The total gain in energy or biomass per unit area per unit time, which could be through photosynthesis in primary producers or absorption in consumers. Quantification of biodiversity in this way this way is important to conservation efforts so that areas of high biodiversity are identified, explored, and appropriate conservation put in place where possible. • Biodiversity is the amount of biological or living diversity in a specific area. ... One mark for each definition. Other doubling times can then be calculated proportionately, that is, the doubling time for any human population is equal to 70 divided by the natural increase rate. Introducing Cram Folders! Abundance is the number of individuals of each species. The term biodiversity refers to the variety of life on Earth at all its levels, from genes to ecosystems, and the ecological and evolutionary processes that sustain it. We weren't able to detect the audio language on your flashcards. Species that usually concentrate their reproductive investment in a small number of offspring, thus increasing their survival rate and adapting them for living in long-term climax communities. • Biodiversity is the variation of life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or for the entire Earth. It may be measured as fertility rate, which is the number of births per thousand women of child-bearing age. Supporting services such as soil formation and nutrient cycling The gain by consumers in energy or biomass per unit area per unit time remaining after allowing for respiratory losses (R). Biodiversity of India: As per available data, the varieties of species living on the earth are 1753739. Most of the indicators of Biodiversity.fi have been grouped according to the main habitat types present in Finland. Evolution reflects changes in the genetic composition of a population over time. Each individual species possesses genes which are the source of its own unique features: In human beings, for example, the huge variety of people's faces reflects each person's genetic individuality. The number of years it would take a population to double its size at its current growth rate. Habitat diversity is the number of different habitats that one particular region can provide. IN POTHWAR, PAKISTAN The habitat is an important concept in biology and microbiology in particular because microorganisms are greatly affected by where they live. In the context of human populations, this refers to the potential for reproduction exhibited in a population. 1) Distinguish between biodiversity, diversity of species, habitat diversity and genetic diversity. Succession increases species diversity as there are new habitats been formed and a more complex ecosystem had been formed. Diverse plant communities increase the likelihood that some of the plants that serve as required food and cover species for a particular wildlife species are present. Habitat diversity – … A term sometimes used by economists for natural resources that, if appropriately managed, can produce a “natural income” of goods and services. Competition. I tell the students that we are going to be using an organizer to help us learn and remember what the word "biodiversity" means. Topic 3 - ESS answers Page 169 1. Human activities modify succession, for example, logging, grazing, burning, Greater habitat diversity leads to greater species and genetic diversity, An ecosystem’s capacity to survive change may depend on diversity, resilience(how well the system can return to the starting position) and inertia (how hard it is to move the system to a new position), Human activities often simplify ecosystems, rendering them unstable, Tropical forests -high diversity and inertia,  low resilience – thin soils. Feedback that tends to damp down, neutralize or counteract any deviation from an equilibrium, and promotes stability. 3Guru IB ESS 4. The mass of organic material in organisms or ecosystems, usually per unit area. Gross National Product, the current value of all goods and services produced in a country per year. The environment in which a species normally lives. Unsustainable development can lead to species extinction. Now known to be potent greenhouse gases. 67, United Nations, New York, 1997. Usually known as halocarbons and first identified as depleting the ozone layer in the stratosphere. All definitions are referenced, where possible preference has been given to internationally recognised definitions (for example those defined by international conventions or agreements). A non-living, physical factor that may influence an organism or ecosystem; for example, temperature, sunlight, pH, salinity, precipitation. A relationship between two species in which one species (the parasite) lives in or on another (the host), gaining all or much (in the case of a partial parasite) of its food from it. Find out how you can intelligently organize your Flashcards. Habitats. The word "habitat" has been in use since about 1755 and derives from the Latin habitāre, to inhabit, from habēre, to have or to hold.Habitat can be defined as the natural environment of an organism, the type of place in which it is natural for it to live and grow. The Habitat Diversity Hypothesis. 2016). Habitat diversity is the number of different habitats that one particular region can provide. 2. These mechanisms are genetic drift, natural selection, mutations, gene flow, and non-random mating. Those atmospheric gases which absorb infrared radiation, causing world temperatures to be warmer than they would otherwise be. A state of balance among the components of a system. We'll bring you back here when you are done. You can talk about species diversity on a small scale, like a forest, or on a large scale, like the total diversity of species living on Earth. ... One mark for each definition. However some might argue that technologies e.g. It extends from the upper part of the atmosphere (where birds, insects and wind- blown pollen may be found) down to the deepest part of the Earth’s crust to which living organisms venture. This includes both the number of species present and their relative abundance. The release of pollutants from numerous, widely dispersed origins; for example, gases from the exhaust systems of vehicles. A group of populations living and interacting with each other in a common habitat. Habitat definition is - the place or environment where a plant or animal naturally or normally lives and grows. They contain large numbers of endemic species (species not found anywhere else), and so measures of biodiversity are essential in identifying areas that should be protected against damaging human activities. The cumulative, gradual change in the genetic characteristics of successive generations of a species or race of an organism, ultimately giving rise to species or races different from the common ancestor. Perhaps the most easily recognized component of habitat diversity is vegetative diversity. The angular distance from the equator (that is, north or south of it) as measured from the centre of the Earth (usually in degrees). Grasslands - low diversity and inertia, high resilience – rich soils. Topic 3 - ESS answers Page 169 1. Vegetative diversity refers to the number of different species of vegetation present. by sophie-jane11, A system is: an assemblage of parts, their relationship forming a whole. Alternatively it may be measured as total fertility, which is simply the average number of children a woman has in her lifetime. A vertical section through a soil, from the surface down to the parent material, revealing the soil layers or horizons. A numerical measure of species diversity that is derived from both the number of species (variety) and their proportional abundance. A method of detailed survey required, in many countries, before a major development. An increase in average temperature of the Earth’s atmosphere. Definition. In spite of many tools and data sources, biodiversity remains difficult to quantify precisely. Often, but not inevitably, the later communities in such a sequence or sere are more complex than those that appear earlier. This is potentially available to consumers in an ecosystem. A living, biological factor that may influence an organism or ecosystem; for example, predation, parasitism, disease, competition. Ideally, to assess the conditions and trends of biodiversity either globally or sub-globally, it is necessary to measure the abundance of all organisms over space and time, using taxonomy (such as the number of species), functional traits (for example, the ecological type such as nitrogen-fixing plants like legumes versus non-nitrogen-fixing plants), and the interactions among species that affect their dynamics and function (predation, parasitism, compe­tition, and facilitation such as pollination, for instance, and how strongly such interactions affect ecosystems). Less economically developed country: a country with low to moderate industrialization and low to moderate average GNP per capita. Diversity index is not a measure in the true sense of a word, but merely a number (index) s it involves a subjective judgment on the combination of two measures: proportion and richness. (iii) γ -Diversity: It describes diversity of habitat over a total land escape or geographical area. Definition and etymology. Habitat, place where an organism or a community of organisms lives, including all living and nonliving factors or conditions of the surrounding environment. 4.1.1 Define the terms biodiversity, genetic diversity, species diversity, and habitat diversity 2Guru IB ESS 3. In Charles Darwin’s On the Origin of Species, Darwin identifies two different methods of adaptation that take place amongst organic species: natural and arti... Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards; Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card; audio not yet available for this language. 2. A diversity index is a mathematical measure of species diversity in a community. It includes the concepts of species diversity, habitat diversity and genetic diversity. The area or natural environment in which an organism or population normally lives. How to use habitat in a sentence. The position that an organism occupies in a food chain, or a group of organisms in a community that occupy the same position in food chains. A host organism inhabited by parasites is as much a habitat as a terrestrial place such as a grove of trees or an aquatic locality such as a I pass out the Frayer model . A general model describing the changing levels of fertility and mortality in a human population over time. If two variables tend to move up or down together, they are said to be positively correlated. 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