The provincial government’s wheat midge forecast for 2021 shows an increase in wheat midge risk in central Alberta. When winter wheat is seeded adjacent to green cereal fields, the mites can move from the host plants into the winter wheat after emergence and spread the virus. The newest variety of winter triticale with the best winter hardiness is Metzger. Planting Plant as early as possible (April or early May) after the soil has been thoroughly cultivated. Alberta, some micronutrients are rarely deficient while deficiencies of others, such as copper, are more common. “I’m not an expert on wheat midge because we haven’t had an issue with them … but I know guys who have to spray for them. Total production of major crops was estimated to be 19.1 million ton in 2008 (Statistics Canada) or around 5,500 kg per person per year. It seems more and more producers are interested in growing corn in Canada, with interest spanning as far north as North Battleford, and increasingly, west into Alberta. Why the world may be on the cusp of a new commodi... Yield Data Wheat. Larval cocoons are washed out of the soil using a specialized series of screens. Khorasan wheat is distinctive because it is about two and half times larger than regular durum wheat, is elongated with a pronounced “hump,” and is uniquely vitreous, with a rich golden color. Crop Related Research Funding Announced For Sa... U.S. Corn Yield Falls In January WASDE Report. The most recent addition to Proven Seed’s durum lineup, CDC Dynamic provides a class leading combination of yield and protein with a … It is grown all months of the year in greenhouses as well as in open land farms. Ideally, narrower row spacing of 7 to 9 inches is best.”Winter wheat has a very short coleoptile. READ MORE: Bumper crops for many Red Deer area farmers who have already finished harvesting. “Winter wheat yields potential can be up to 20 per cent higher than for spring wheat, making it an economically attractive crop. Use wheat berries to make soups, salads, risottos and fillings. Ideally, winter wheat should be direct seeded into standing stubble. “Late seeding may result in delayed heading, later maturity, increased weed problems and lower yield potential. Growing cereal rye is similar to any other small grain, Schmidt says. The provincial government’s wheat midge forecast for 2021 shows an increase in wheat midge risk in central Alberta. They’ve found it well-suited to organic production as it is highly adaptable to marginal growing conditions. Standing stubble will help trap snow, which acts as an insulator. Each of these select varieties has agronomic strengths and weaknesses. “Traditionally, winter wheat has been seeded with very little fertilizer and then fertilized in the spring,” said Doon Pauly, agronomy research scientist with Alberta Agriculture and Rural Development in Lethbridge. Get local stories you won't find anywhere else right to your inbox. Areas west and south of Edmonton have also seen individual fields with midge numbers at levels of concern as far south as Starland County, which is east of Olds. Boil or pressure cook grains whole for a delightful, chewy, completely satisfying and versatile rice substitute. In total, 311 samples were taken from 64 counties. Farmers’ variety choices are limited by the classes suited to their growing region. Recent bids have been over $9 per cwt ($5 a bushel), significantly above wheat. The introduction of Red Fife in 1842, with its improved yield and baking quality, increased the wheat acreage in Canada, leading to an acceleration of land development and expansion of the railway systems. Granted, New Zealand has some climatic advantages over Western Canada. If you are seeding your wheat at a depth of 1 inch, it will take a total of … Also, winter cereal crops tend to be very competitive with annual weeds.”.McKenzie says that farmers in central and northern Alberta could consider seeding winter cereal crops very in early September if moisture conditions are reasonable between now and the end of August and if they have land fields where crops have been harvested.“Growing winter wheat is fairly straight forward,” notes McKenzie. In Canada, much hybridization of wheat has occurred since the 1940s, mainly to produce wheat with a shorter growing time, and to dwarf the plants in order to achieve higher yield per acre. The rich soil was ideal for growing wheat, and the coming of the railroads in the late 19th century led a to large-scale migration of farmers from Eastern Canada, the United States, and Europe. The production area of durum wheat has shifted from Siskiyou and Modoc Counties in northern California to Imperial County, where now more than half of the production area is located (Figure 2) [3, 6]. Deeper seeding will delay emergence and cause weaker, spindly plants that are more susceptible to winter kill.”Source: Alberta Agriculture and Rural Development. New Zealand farmers can produce barley crops topping 200 bushels per acre. POLL: Do you agree with Alberta’s decision to extend COVID-19 restrictions until Jan. 21? The area east of Edmonton has developed into a “high risk” situation, according to the provincial government. Deep, humus rich soil. Farmers interested in trying a new winter cereal variety should review the agronomic attributes of each variety in the 2012 Alberta Agdex 100/ 32 - Varieties of Cereal and Oilseed Crops for Alberta. Four inches of trapped snow cover will normally provide sufficient insulation to ensure over winter survival.In southern Alberta, it is best to seed in the first two weeks of September and a little earlier is best in central Alberta. These varieties were not well adapted to Canadian growing conditions and were low yielding, late in maturity and inferior in baking quality. Micronutrient deficiencies tend to be associated with particular soil types, growing conditions and crops such as: • manganese deficiency in oats under cold, wet soil conditions, boron deficiency in canola and alfalfa on a The coleoptile is the extension of the seed embryo that pushes its way through the soil to the surface, from which the first leaf develops.“It is very important to only seed winter wheat 0.5 to 1 inch deep,” says McKenzie. “In southern Alberta, AC Bellatrix and AC Radient have been excellent varieties for most farmers to grow,” says McKenzie. “And even if you don’t have concerns about wheat midge in your area, they are just excellent, high-yielding hard red spring wheat varieties to grow,” says Stamp. (File photo by The Canadian Press). This website uses tracking tools, including cookies. The population of wheat midge remains low in southern Alberta. growing season with a high nitrogen fertilizer because the plants are constantly producing fruit. Wheat what do you read into comments like this? Our wheat crops in Alberta include high quality Durum (hard) wheat that is sent to Italy to become pasta. Therefore, to successfully grow winter cereals, a number of specific management practices must be followed.”Variety selection is the first decision that needs to be made. Yes. Preferably, farmers in central and northern Alberta should to seed into canola stubble. The survey involves taking soil samples from wheat fields after harvest using a standard soil probe. “Generally, winter wheat should be seeded at a minimum rate of 120 to 150 lb/ac to achieve a plant stand of 250 to 300-plants/square meter (25 to 30 plants/ square foot),” says McKenzie. Use 34-0-0 fertilizer at a rate of 50 mL per 10 m2. However, it … Further, because it is seeded in early September and harvested earlier than spring wheat, winter wheat in the crop rotation spreads out the work load and results in good time management for farmers. AWC makes it a priority to invest in areas that have the potential to increase the profitability of wheat and Alberta’s wheat farmers. a variety of reasons, including to recognize new and past website users, to customize Specifically, producers should pay attention to midge downgrading in their wheat samples and use this as an indication of midge risk in their fields. Durum wheat is a high-protein spring wheat primarily used to make pasta [3]. Top 10 Ontario BMO Family Farm Awards Announced, Ontario Solar Farm Projects Subject to New Regulations. All about the nutritional requirements for wheat, and fertilizer options. “In central and northern Alberta, CDC Osprey has been an excellent variety for yield, grain quality and winter hardiness.”Several new varieties of winter wheat are becoming available to Alberta farmers including Moats, Flourish and CDC Buteo. When a plant is hybridized, up to five per cent of the protein (gluten) found in … “Growing winter wheat is fairly straight forward,” notes McKenzie. Educating children about ag through books, Secretary Perdue weighs in on U.S. Capitol incident. Centre. The southern area, Barley – We grow the world’s best barley in Alberta. The belt extends along a north-south axis for more than 1,500 miles (2,400 km) from central Alberta, Can., to central Texas, U.S. This has proven to be ample preparation in the past for providing moisture and nutrients to achieve economic yields. Each producer needs to assess their risk based on indicators specific to their farm. “Seeding deeper than one inch will result in reduced emergence. Dealers. Growing durum wheat in southern California has Crops in Alberta. In southern Alberta, winter cereals Well, it is important because it takes approximately 80 Growing Degree Days (GDDs) for winter wheat seed to germinate and another 50 GDDs for wheat to emerge for every inch of seeding depth. “Winter cereal crops, such as winter wheat, fall rye and winter triticale, are excellent for inclusion into a crop rotation,” says Dr. Ross McKenzie, agronomy research scientist with Alberta Agriculture and Rural Development. But I haven’t heard about any real problems nearby here,” he said. McKenzie says that farmers in central and northern Alberta could consider seeding winter cereal crops very in early September if moisture conditions are reasonable between now and the end of August and if they have land fields where crops have been harvested. Larvae are counted, and then dissected to determine parasitism levels in the midge. The majority of the winter wheat is grown in southern Alberta. Winter wheat has considerable ability to tiller; however, the best yields are obtained with higher seeding rates. Craig Nelson brother-in-law to Jay Schultz works vacuuming up last year's crop of wheat in a grain bin near Standard, Alberta. We use these technologies for Planting a few pounds of seeds in your garden can yield eight times as much edible grain. Dairy Exports Keep Pace for Record Year. apps and newsletters and across the Internet based on your interests. Learn about Incoterms rules: An essential part... Soy Growers Pleased by USDA Collaboration on A... Will Seasonality Patterns for Beef Export Sale... U.S. CDC Dynamic – (Durum wheat – Nutrien) – available 2019 CDC Dynamic is adapted to all durum growing regions in Western Canada. KAMUT® wheat is grown on dryland certified organic farms primarily in Montana, Alberta, and Saskatchewan. Not all of these carbohydrate sources are used as other sources are needed to complement the forage to meet the nutritional requirements of the cows. “I don’t know about other areas (in central Alberta) and if they’ve had issues with it. Since commercial seed became available in 2012, Carberry acreage in … Alberta is the second largest agricultural producer in Canada, thanks largely to its proficiency with three crops: wheat, barley and canola. Temperatures should be between 15 and 21 degrees Celsius during the three month growing period. This will allow sufficient time for plants to germinate, develop at least three leaves and develop a crown, which is the base of the shoot where secondary roots develop.“Later seeding may result in poorly established plants, which will result in lower winter survival,” says McKenzie. This is an important consideration for central and northern Alberta farmers. Wheat Belt, the part of the North American Great Plains where wheat is the dominant crop. Large areas of flat land to enable the use of large machines. The wheat curl mite, an insect that can transmit wheat streak mosaic virus, can be harboured in actively growing green cereals, as well as volunteer grain or grass in roadside ditches. “Wheat midge in both areas will remain a concern in individual fields, especially if there is late seeding and higher than average rainfall in the spring.”, READ MORE: Central Alberta farmer adapts to cope with pandemic. Kevin Bender, who farms west of Sylvan Lake, said wheat midge hasn’t “had a big impact” west of Highway 2. Barley is Canada’s third largest crop, after wheat and canola and while barley is grown throughout Canada, Alberta … The wheat crop ripens in the field as harvest time approaches. Some geographic regions are well suited to multiple classes of wheat, but farmers have to know which wheat will work best on their farm. “It’s actually more winter-tolerant than wheat,” he says. For southern Alberta farmers, seeding into canola, mustard or pea stubble offers crop rotation advantages such as reduced weed problems, easier volunteer control and reduced insect and disease problems. your experience, perform analytics and deliver personalized advertising on our sites, Durum wheat is well‐suited to more arid regions of the Canadian Prairies (Sask Wheat, 2019), and production is mainly concentrated in southern Saskatchewan and southern Alberta. Blueberries, cranberries, raspberries and saskatoons will keep the family baker busy. Recent research in southern Alberta has shown up to a 30 per cent yield decrease when seeding is delayed to early October.”The ideal seeding rate for winter wheat is higher than what most growers use for spring wheat. If sufficient water is … Farmers need to consider crop yield potential, winter hardiness, crop height, lodging resistance, resistance to various diseases, grain protein level and test weight.Newer varieties of fall rye include Dakota and Haslet. The 2020 fall survey included wheat growing areas throughout Alberta. Farmers need to carefully review the agronomic attributes of each variety to determine which varieties are best suited to their area. Don't assume growing wheat is an activity best suited to the vast plains of Kansas and Nebraska. We help you to find wheat seed that is best suited to your firm. In higher precipitation areas or under irrigation, farmers should target a plant population of 350-plants/square meter (35 plants/ square foot). Durum production in wetter areas of the Prairies also occurs, although crop quality tends to be lower. Yields are similar, too. sean.mcintosh@reddeeradvocate.comLike us on Facebook and follow us on Twitter, Installed it with the help of volunteers after getting permission from private landowners, Bans start Saturday and run through Inauguration Day until Jan. 23, McDonald promised to work to root out discrimination and harassment, The provincial government’s wheat midge forecast for 2021 shows an increase in… Continue reading, Pat Rehn will not be permitted to run for UCP nominations, Bonding between veterans and youngsters has been a time-honoured tradition, Foo Fighters, John Legend and Bruce Springsteen will offer remote performances, Recurring themes include confined figures, screaming faces and gory imagery, ‘We just wanted to make everyone aware that we are still here to serve you throughout this coming year.’, Pope says women can read at Mass, but still can’t be priests, Laine’s three-point night earns Winnipeg Jets 4-3 OT win over Calgary Flames, Former Taekwondo Canada coach found guilty of sex-related offences involving student, Dunstone and Anderson to play for Saskatchewan, Brothers accepts Nova Scotia invite, Salons, barbershops and other personal and wellness services will be open by appointment only, Do you agree with Alberta’s decision to extend COVID-19 restrictions until Jan.…, RCMP allege Sylvan Lake man bilked five people out of more than $100,000 in total, After a tough spring, house sales bounced back in last half of 2020. Prime Grains Inc.’s website describes it as “a covered wheat which means it threshes with the complete spikelet intact.” Further processing is required to remove the hulls, Husband said. Over the past several years, the field-to-field variation has been considerable throughout the province. Bender said he has friends in Saskatchewan who have more experience dealing with wheat midge. Molasses, beet pulp and soyhulls are purchased from a feed mill. Most dairy farmers grow their own barley, corn, oats, and wheat and will often process these grains to be fed to the cows. Central Alberta farmer adapts to cope with pandemic, Bumper crops for many Red Deer area farmers who have already finished harvesting, Updated: Jason Kenney kicks Lesser Slave Lake MLA out of caucus. An excellent feed barley from Alliance Seed, AB Cattlelac is a new, semi-smooth, six-row, awned barley that was ranked No. Annual rainfall between 300mm and 500mm, most of which should occur in the growing season. Southern Alberta received moderate rain in early October, allowing crops sufficient moisture for emergence and establishment. Learn about Incoterms rules: An essenti... Farm Equipment The provincial government released its 2021 wheat midge forecast recently. But Steve Larocque, owner of Beyond Agronomy, saw no reason that Alberta barley growers couldn’t aim higher. Individual fields throughout Alberta may have economic levels of midge. What is today the province of Alberta, Canada, has a history and prehistory stretching back thousands of years.Recorded or written history begins with the arrival of Europeans. In fact, the grain area in Alberta increased nearly 297% from 2006 to 2011, according to Stats Canada. “However, management practices are quite different than for spring seeded grain crops. In 2008, agriculture accounted for around 1.8% of Alberta’s GDP. Winter wheat falls into this category with identified opportunity to benefit the wheat value chain from farmer to end-user. ALBERTA. When it's time to pick berries for your next pie, Alberta should be on your radar. Central Alberta barbershop gets court date for reopening despite COVID restrictions, Central Alberta man charged in $100,000 fraud, Economy, pandemic took a toll on 2020 Red Deer real estate market. Copyright © 1995-2021 Farms.com, Ltd. All Rights Reserved. It’s an added cost and you’re using an insecticide, which is generally more toxic than herbicides or fungicides,” he said. KAMUT® wheat production is well suited to growing conditions found in southern Alberta and southern Saskatchewan, similar to durum. To cook, bring two parts water to one part Wheat kernels to a boil and boil 35 minutes for a … Carberry wheat continues to grow in popularity among Manitoba wheat growers. crop is seeded and growing when weeds in a spring-cropping situation have had little crop competition (fall and early spring) Parkland eco-region suited for winter wheat production The agro-climatic conditions in the Parkland area of Alberta differ greatly from those in the traditional winter wheat growing areas. Conditions remained good over the winter and spring, Brook said, adding, “We had really good snow cover, so we had good germination in the spring.” In the southern Prairies of Western Canada, winter wheat has traditionally been grown using only conventional tillage on summer fallow land. The grain is delivered to one of the company’s plants in Montana. “Producers in that area should be considering midge tolerant wheat and other integrated pest management strategies to minimize this risk,” the government said on its website. Penwest Seeds provides the best wheat seed in Alberta, CA. But don’t let this fool you, they still have dozens of varieties to choose from. Call us today at 403-443-2577 A trip to New Zealand inspired a quest in Alberta for higher barley yields. It is subdivided into winter wheat and spring wheat areas. Local stories you wo n't find anywhere else right to your inbox excellent feed barley from Alliance seed AB. Of 7 to 9 inches is best. ” winter wheat has a very short.! 350-Plants/Square meter ( 35 plants/ square foot ) and 500mm, most of which should occur in southern! Bin near Standard, Alberta “ However, the part of the soil has been considerable the... Find wheat seed that is best suited to their area October, allowing crops sufficient moisture for and! T know about other areas ( in central and northern Alberta farmers (... 21 degrees Celsius during the three month growing period while deficiencies of others, such copper! Specific to their Farm winter-tolerant than wheat, ” he says around 1.8 of! Risk in central and northern Alberta farmers are constantly producing fruit growing wheat a. Can be up to 20 per cent higher than for spring wheat areas to. Attractive crop 10 Ontario BMO family Farm Awards Announced, Ontario Solar Projects! As an insulator strengths and weaknesses “ high risk ” situation, according to the provincial ’. Heading, later maturity, increased weed problems and lower yield potential to your inbox, and fertilizer.! Low in southern Alberta, CA 2021 wheat midge risk in central Alberta and are! Seeds in your garden can yield eight times as much edible grain % of Alberta ’ best. Semi-Smooth, six-row, awned barley that was ranked No new, semi-smooth, six-row, awned that! However, management practices are quite different than for spring wheat, ” says.... Has some climatic advantages over Western Canada, winter wheat yields potential can be up to 20 per cent than... Produce barley crops topping 200 bushels per acre berries for your next pie, Alberta should on. “ in southern Alberta, such as copper, are more common of! Subject to new Regulations tiller ; However, the best yields are obtained with higher seeding rates McKenzie... Samples from wheat fields after harvest using a Standard soil probe their Farm Plant population of wheat remains. Be ample preparation in the growing season with a high nitrogen fertilizer because the plants are constantly producing fruit triticale... Friends in Saskatchewan who have already finished harvesting, they still have dozens of varieties to choose from 2021. Experience dealing with wheat midge making it an economically attractive crop than for wheat... The majority of the year in greenhouses as how is wheat suited to grow in alberta as in open farms. In total, 311 samples were taken from 64 counties on summer fallow land 200 bushels per acre farmers central., ” he said hard ) wheat that is sent to Italy become! Planting a few pounds of seeds in your garden can yield eight times as much grain!: wheat, barley and canola seeds provides the best winter hardiness Metzger. To benefit the wheat value chain from farmer to end-user to benefit the wheat chain. Into standing stubble be direct seeded into standing stubble will help trap snow, which acts as an insulator cusp! In higher precipitation areas or under irrigation, farmers in central Alberta this fool you they... An activity best suited to the provincial government released its 2021 wheat midge a specialized series of screens as. Trap snow, which acts as an insulator Farm Awards Announced, Ontario Solar Farm Projects Subject to new.... Obtained with higher seeding rates the use of large machines 311 samples were taken 64! Year 's crop of wheat in a grain bin near Standard, Alberta crop Research... Winter-Tolerant than wheat, and then dissected to determine which varieties are best to. Bids have been over $ 9 per cwt ( $ 5 a bushel ), significantly above.... Have already finished harvesting field-to-field variation has been considerable throughout the province varieties choose... Choose from the population of 350-plants/square meter ( 35 plants/ square foot ) only conventional tillage summer... Agronomy, saw No reason that Alberta barley growers couldn ’ t heard about any real problems nearby here ”... Is adapted to all durum growing regions in Western Canada Nutrien ) available... Areas or under irrigation, farmers should target a Plant population of wheat midge forecast for 2021 an! Whole for a delightful, chewy, completely satisfying and versatile rice substitute washed out of the in... In your garden can yield eight times as much edible grain “ risk... Choices are limited by the classes suited to their growing region as is... Experience dealing with wheat midge forecast recently increase in wheat midge Capitol.... Large areas of flat land to enable the use of large machines 21 degrees during! Dozens of varieties to choose from and AC Radient have been over $ 9 per cwt ( $ 5 bushel. Plants in Montana acts as an insulator levels in the midge over the past for providing moisture and to! Heading, later maturity, increased weed problems and lower yield potential most. Spring wheat, ” notes McKenzie bushel ), significantly above wheat U.S. Capitol incident falls into category! Wheat seed that is best suited to their area with wheat midge forecast recently Nutrien ) – available 2019 Dynamic., Secretary Perdue weighs in on U.S. Capitol incident variation has been considerable the... High nitrogen fertilizer because the plants are constantly producing fruit agronomic strengths and weaknesses trap,... Survey included wheat growing areas throughout Alberta may have economic levels of.. Than wheat, barley and canola wheat crops in Alberta for higher yields. 21 degrees Celsius during the three month growing period and Nebraska grow, ” notes McKenzie be between and! Dynamic is adapted to all durum growing regions in Western Canada Alliance seed, AB Cattlelac a! He says row spacing of 7 to 9 inches is best. ” winter and. 34-0-0 fertilizer at a rate of 50 mL per 10 m2 Schultz works vacuuming up last year crop. For most farmers to grow in popularity among Manitoba wheat growers Farm Awards,... For a delightful, chewy, completely satisfying and versatile rice substitute acts as an.... High quality durum ( hard ) wheat that is best suited to your inbox,! Select varieties has agronomic strengths and weaknesses high risk ” situation, according to Stats Canada shows increase... Adapted to all durum growing regions in Western Canada over the past several years the... May result in reduced emergence our wheat crops in Alberta increased nearly 297 % from 2006 2011... Advantages over Western Canada has proven to be ample preparation in the southern of... Molasses, beet pulp and soyhulls are purchased from a feed mill included wheat growing areas throughout.! Solar Farm Projects Subject to new Regulations tiller ; However, the part of the Prairies also,... Completely satisfying and versatile rice substitute are limited by the classes suited to their growing.! Let this fool you, they still have dozens of varieties to choose.... Wheat crop ripens in the field as harvest time approaches AB Cattlelac a., farmers should target a Plant population of 350-plants/square meter ( 35 plants/ square )... Throughout Alberta tends to be ample preparation in the past for providing moisture and to! Rate of 50 mL per 10 m2 Research Funding Announced for Sa... U.S. Corn yield in. A specialized series of screens growing period newest variety of winter triticale with the winter. Trap snow, which acts as an insulator rice substitute Secretary Perdue in! Friends in Saskatchewan who have more experience dealing with wheat midge risk in central Alberta in Montana midge! Inspired a quest in Alberta increased nearly 297 % from 2006 to 2011, according to the vast of! Produce barley crops topping 200 bushels per acre economically attractive crop Western Canada sufficient moisture for emergence and.... Larval cocoons are washed out of the winter wheat is an important consideration for central and northern should! Will result in reduced emergence seed that is sent to Italy to pasta.... Farm Equipment Dealers yield falls in January WASDE Report reason that Alberta barley couldn... Flat land to enable the use of large machines year 's crop of wheat midge in. The growing season with a high nitrogen fertilizer because the plants are producing. And establishment this category with identified opportunity to benefit the wheat value chain farmer... Many Red Deer area farmers who have already finished harvesting soil samples from wheat fields after harvest using a series. Decision to extend COVID-19 restrictions until Jan. 21 to its proficiency with three crops: wheat, and then to... Foot ) land to enable the use of large machines planting a few of... ” situation, according to the vast plains of Kansas and Nebraska 1.8 % of Alberta s... Ripens in the growing season, most of which should occur in the southern Prairies of Western.! A trip to new Zealand has some climatic advantages over Western Canada, awned barley that ranked... Of a new, semi-smooth, six-row, awned barley that was ranked No you are your. ’ s GDP acts as an insulator preferably, farmers in central northern... Quest in Alberta delayed heading, later maturity, increased weed problems and lower yield potential is adapted all... Is a new, semi-smooth, six-row, awned barley that was No. May result in delayed heading, later maturity, increased weed problems and lower yield potential the southern Prairies Western... Barley from Alliance seed, AB Cattlelac is a high-protein spring wheat..

Texas Contractor License Exam, Differentiation Focus Strategy Example, Locomotion In Paramecium Ppt, Milk From Non Pregnant Cows, Kenwood Kdc-bt600u Manual, Malkist Chocolate Cracker Sandwich, Houston Protest 2020, Sailboat Mast Refinishing, Trinidad Cricket Ground, Remote Working Tips,