Our analysis is the first to quantify bacterial beta-diversity among habitats across many parts of the globe. Yes Further, we only retained samples that could be classified into one of the following habitats: soil, sediment, marine water, inland water (e.g., rivers and lakes), air, and biofilms/mats. Thus, a limitation to these conclusions is that the samples are highly concentrated in North America and Europe (Fig 1), and continued sampling is needed to test the robustness of these diversity patterns. Yet ultimately, little is known about the environmental conditions, and their heterogeneity, at the spatial scale that matters for microorganisms [56]. (B) Mean Raup-Crick dissimilarity (distance from centroid) ± standard error. Of course, the number and localities of samples available will influence the diversity estimates. Both the 97% OTU and the ESV datasets yielded the same alpha-diversity trends, as previously noted in a smaller scale study [69]. Thus, it is the inclusive diversity of all the habitat types within an area (region). Thus, the increase of the contribution of β to γ diversity along the gradient of increasing precipitation is most likely associated with the increase in ecological heterogeneity and the decrease in species diffusion. Contrary to our hypothesis, biomes with higher plant diversity or productivity, such as forest or shrubland soils, were no more diverse within a sample than other biomes (Fig 2B). The sensitivity of α diversity of different steppe community types was negatively (P<0.05) correlated with mean annual precipitation, whereas the sensitivity of β and γ diversity showed no trend along the precipitation gradient (P>0.10). The change in the contribution of β diversity among the steppe community types was mainly due to changes in β replacement diversity (βR), while β nestedness diversity (βN) showed little change. We quantify beta-diversity as the variability in community composition (the identity of taxa observed) among samples within a habitat [21]. Bacteria are essential parts of ecosystems and are the most diverse organisms on the planet. To focus on the relationships between species diversity and climate, and to minimize the influence of domestic animal grazing, all the surveyed sites were selected either in fenced grassland under protection, or in mowed grassland (surveyed before haymaking at the end of August). We tested whether the beta-diversity results depended on the diversity metric by running a correlation with every pairwise combination of nine diversity metrics. We chose 20 geoclusters because that depth included five of the six habitats (excluding air) but avoided the biases expected with sample sizes less than ten [38]. (iii) The α diversity increased logarithmically, while β diversity increased exponentially, with γ diversity. Further, the diversity of agricultural practices around the world [61,64] seems to select for as much variation in bacterial composition (beta-diversity) as different types forests or deserts. Alpha and γ diversity are grouped as inventory diversity, sharing the same characteristics and differentiated only by scale. Roles That’s a very interesting question. First, diversity trends did not depend on the particular alpha- or beta-diversity metrics used (Figs 3A and S5A). While a smaller clustering distance would have yielded a higher geocluster sample size, this conservative distance allowed us to be more confident that our results reflected ecological processes, rather than sampling locations. We begin by extending our previous diversity structure approach, which partitioned seed source diversity within and among dispersal sites, into the more general framework of traditional diversity measures. In ecology, gamma diversity (γ-diversity) is the total species diversity in a landscape. It thus contributes significantly to the broadening of biology and to a better balance within biological science as a whole. (B) pH differs among biomes (ANOVA, p < 0.0001). 51 VH segments. Both βN diversity and βR diversity increased with precipitation, and consequently total β diversity also increased (Fig. For each of the 150 rarefied, square root transformed OTU tables, we calculated the median abundance for each taxon across all the samples within a single geocluster. Alpha diversity is the species diversity present within each forest or grassland patch of the slope. This is the diversity of species between two habitats or regions.