Iodine is an essential element for the synthesis of the thyroid hormones triiodothyronine and thyroxine in the human body, with vanadium also known to be involved in the synthesis of thyroid hormones. Mean saltiodine concentration was 21.69 (SD=10.56) ppm. Fiber – 0,5 – 1 1 g (depending on type of lettuce), Calcium – 20- 68 mg. Iron – from 0.5 to 1.1 mg (depending on type of lettuce), Sodium – 10 mg, Potassium – 22- 42 mg. Vitamin B1 – 0.06 mg. Vitamin B2 – 0.06 mg. Vitamin C – 6 21 mg. mL-1 of deutered salicylic acid (SA-d4, Sigma-Aldrich). 2. studies were conducted in a greenhouse with hydroponic cultivation of three botanical varieties of lettuce in an NFT (nutrient film technique) system: two cultivars butterhead lettuces (abb. Regardless of the kind of the applied compound, the highest biomass of heads was produced by the REDL ‘Redin’ variety. In this respect all plantsand animals are fundamentally similar, being alike composed of molecular, cellular, and fibrous tissues. 8; Means followed by the same letter are not signiﬁcantly. Importance of maintaining a low omega-6, of iodine form and concentration in the nutrient solution on growth, development and iodine uptake of. Hasan, M.R. The content of nitrogenous compounds and chlorides (means for 2018-2019). ; Lichiardopol, C. Iodine deﬁciency. Therefore it is essential to investigate the function they may play in triclosan mechanism iodosalicylates is worthy of consideration due to the fact that it may be a good source of iodine and, Iodine deﬁciency (ID) is regarded as one of the most important health problem that a, human activities that lead to soil erosion, the degradation of water, iodine in the human organism is dependent on its content in soils, plants, and livestock products, that are consumed, so people who live in mountainous areas are more exposed to risk of iodine. The same tendency was not, was characterized by a lower content of nitrates, as compared to the control [, ], who found an increased content of nitrate in water spinach after, the biochemical mechanism of N uptake and assimilation in which speciﬁc transporters and enzymes, ), and nitrite reductase (NiR), which reduces nitrite to ammonium [, the application of iodosalicylic acids contributed to a decrease in the level of free amino acids in tested, This is in line with previous ﬁndings in the literature [, as well as nitrate reductase (NR) activity, can contribute to pathological disorders in plants and thus decrease crop quality, observed increased concentrations of chloride after the application of iodosalicylic acids compared, and chloride transporters, so it is possible for there to be a distortion of transfer after fortiﬁcation with. showed that the leaves of 5-ISA-enriched lettuce are characterized by the highest level of iodine. the inﬂuence of iodine biofortiﬁcation (potassium iodate. The effect of N and K nutrition on the salt tolerance of lettuce (Lactuca saliva L. cv. The applied treatments had no significant impact on lettuce biomass (leaves and roots). inﬂuenced as nitrogen fertilizer and plant spacing. AhR receptors are engaged in neurodevelopment, differentiation process and Iodine Deficiency Disorders are a major public health problem worldwide affecting all groups of people of which children and lactating women are the most vulnerable categories. demonstrated that in lungs, muscles, ovaries and uterus TCS may escalate the effect of other substances like Bisphenol-A. © 2008-2021 ResearchGate GmbH. Bagiu RV, Vlaicu B, Butnariu M (2012) Chemical composition and in vitro antifungal activity screening of the Allium ursinum L. (Liliaceae). Furthermore, this variety, as the only one in six varieties tested, reacted with the decrease in yield to the application of I+Se and I+Se+three concentrations of SA. Here is the nutritional value of lettuce is 100 g: Calories – 13 mud Carbohydrates – 2.9 g, Protein – 0.9 g, fat – 0.1 grams, Water – 96 g. Fiber – 0,5 – 1 1 g (depending on type of lettuce), Calcium – 20- 68 mg. Iron – from 0.5 to 1.1 mg (depending on type of lettuce), Sodium – 10 mg, Potassium – 22- 42 mg. Vitamin B1 – 0.06 mg. Vitamin B2 – 0.06 mg. Vitamin C – 6 21 mg. treatment, transport, and long-term storage. Fresh lettuce leaves were analyzed to determine the. on iodine concentration in various tissues and selected biochemical parameters in serum of Wistar rats. The ash content was in the, The application of an inorganic form of iodine (KIO, ) caused a statistically signiﬁcant decrease of, crude fat content and an increase of protein level in comparison to the other combinations. A substantial percentage of people around the world suffer from health disorders related to the deficiency of these elements in the diet. The following is the composition of a butterhead lettuce: It contains very large amount of water, about 95% of its total content. The consumer safety of iodine-enriched lettuce leaves was evaluated on the basis of the HQ, (hazard quotient) values that describe the risk to human health resulting from the intake of I through, body weight per day) and RfD represents the recommended dietary tolerable upper intake level of, iodine concentration in lettuce leaves (mg, for plant samples (dry weight to fresh weight ratio; 0.162 on average), DI is the daily intake of iodine. Universal salt iodization programs have been proposed over the world, but unfortunately have covered about 71% of the world's population. In Vivo evidence for a new model of iodine prophylaxis. The powdery sample was analyzed for proximate and mineral constituents. None of the iodine compounds, in most tested doses, have substantially increased the CAT and POX activities in tomato leaves. This studyaimed to determine the effect of V on the uptake and accumulation of various forms of I, the metabolism of iodosalicylates and iodobenzoates and, finally, on the accumulation of T3 (triiodothyronine—as example of PDTHA) in plants. Therefore, this vegetable is mandatory for any low-calorie diet for weight loss. including rare earth elements, in chilled and non-chilled cauliﬂower cultivars. Wang, Don Jeng, "Certain Changes in Chemical Composition of Lettuce (Lactuca Sativa L.) Stored in Controlled Atmosphere" (1971). Plants were cultivated in a hydroponic system NFT (Nutrient Film Technique). In comparison to the control, application of the, organic forms of iodine caused the increased concentration of chloride (Cl. ) and. ), 3./KIO3 + SA (40.0 μM I and 40.0 μM SA), 4./5I-SA (1.6 μM I), 5./5I-SA (8.0 μM I), and 6./5I-SA (40.0 μM I). This study demonstrates that the biofortiﬁcation of lettuce with iodine compounds has no e, content of ash, dietary ﬁber, and digestible carbohydrates. accumulation of a much higher content of iodine in plants than after KIO, In a study conducted on tomato plants, the authors demonstrated that the absorption of iodine from, the inorganic form (KI) is higher than iodine from iodosalicylates [. A significant increase of APX activity was noted only for the highest doses of KI and 5-ISA. reported a lower level of iodine with a portion of fresh seeds of pea plants treated with iodine (I, The consumption of a 100 g portion of pea seeds provides only about 2% of RDA-I [. erent depending on the time of harvest. (0.1 kg), and BW is the taken body weight (70 kg). ICEL) ‘Maugli’ and ‘Królowa lata’ (all this four cultivars are classified as Lactuca sativa L. var. Chemical composition and antioxidant capacity of lettuce: comparative study of regular-sized (Romaine) and baby-sized (Little Gem and Mini Romaine) types. The results obtained in this study are comparable with the data of other authors. The obtained results indicate that the introduction of SA to the nutrient solutions in hydroponic systems may allow an improve the effectiveness of – biofortification. and I.K,; resources, S.S., A.K., I.K. It is well known thet AhR receptor is induced The tested KI, 3,5-diISA, and 5-ISA doses had no negative impact on the growth and development of plants, apart from the reduction of shoot biomass after the application of 3,5-diISA in 10 and 25 µM I doses. important in terms of potential consumers. Transplants at 40 days after sowing were exposed to 4 °C (chilling) and 18 °C (control) for 7 days and then planted in the field till harvest maturity. The obtained results of iodine accumulation in individual parts after applying iodine and vanadium fertilization testify to the stimulating effect of vanadium on iodine uptake and accumulation. depends to a large extent on the chemical form of the applied compound. were extracted by adding 2 mL of hexane to the tube. All applied compounds, except for SA, caused a reduction of ascorbic acid (AA) content and increase of dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) content in leaves. L.) with iodine and selenium in combination with the application of salicylic acid. not limited to negative impacts on human health. acids. Comprehensive Handbook of Iodine—Nutritional, Biochemical, Pathological and Therapeutic Aspects, Poradnik Mineralizacji Kjeldahl’a—Przegl ˛, ; Labconsult: Warszawa, Poland, 1999. sources of this trace element in the human diet. Fertilization with iodine and vanadium compounds decreased the accumulation of most minerals, macroelements, and microelements compared to controls. Green salad can be beneficial in the treatment of indigestion, arthritis, circulatory problems and colitis. Furthermore, we observed that after fertilization with KIO, of iodothyrosine in lettuce was the highest, which may indicate a role of iodate in the synthesis of, ], the RDA for iodine (RDA-I) of a serving of lettuce. Lorincz, C.; Manske, S.L. with salicylic acid (SA). However, there was, nitrogenous compounds and chlorides in lettuce are presented in T, acids was observed in control non-enriched plants. B Internal Structure. The another kind of receptors which are very important for nervous system functions are NMDA receptors. Quantitative changes in the accumulation of organic metabolites (iodosalicylates and iodobenzoates) accumulation were observed, along with increased T3 synthesis, with its content in leaves exceeding the level of individual iodosalicylates and iodobenzoates. procedure described in the earlier publication of Smole, procedure was applied: 50 mg of plant material was placed in 7 mL polypropylene tubes, with 5 mL. All applied compounds, except for SA, caused a reduction of ascorbic acid (AA) content and increase of dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) content in leaves. After the perception of a pathogen, plant cells produce SA in the chloroplast.  used an organic form of iodine 5-iodosalicylic acid, 3,5-diiodosalicylic acid, 2-iodobenzoic acid, 4-iodobenzoic acid, and 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid to enrich a tomato plant with iodine. Mineral composition (means for 2018-2019). The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of iodine biofortification (potassium iodate/KIO3/, 5-iodosalicylic acid/5-ISA/and 3.5-diiodosalicylic acid/3.5-diISA/) on the chemical composition of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. capitata) cv. It was established that after the application of 5-ISA and 3,5-diISA, iodine is taken up to a smaller extent than from KI. An additional control combination included the treatment with salicylic acid (SA) alone. concentrations of total sugars, sucrose, glucose and fructose, nitrates (V), nitrites (III), ammonium ion, C and lyophilized with the use of a Christ Alpha 1-4 lyophilizer. 5094. https://digitalcommons.usu.edu/etd/5094 Download DOWNLOADS. physiological conditions, they take part in metabolism of neurosteroids like testosterone, 17B-estradiol and prostaglandins. They also contain carbohydrates, dietary fibre, protein and many vitamins and nutrients that are important for human health. Sensory evaluation was also carried out for the acceptability of lettuce from different planting methods. Join ResearchGate to find the people and research you need to help your work. C. After incubation, samples were cooled to a temperature of approximately 20. ﬁlled to 30 mL with double-distilled water. organic form as iodosalicylates (5-iodosalicylic and 3,5-diiodosalicylic acid) is taken up and accumulated, The aim of the study was to determine the inﬂuence of iodine biofortiﬁcation (potassium, In the spring seasons of 2018 and 2019, the hydroponic cultivation of lettuce, greenhouse of the Faculty of Biotechnology and Horticulture, University of Agriculture in Krak, Each year, seed sowing was performed at the beginning of Mar, Seeds were sown into 112-cell propagation trays with 32, with the use of tap water. In addition, an increase in ascorbic acid content was observed, but only in the BUTL cultivars and REDL “Redin”. Iodine Deficiency, Still a Global Problem? Abstract. When compared to control lettuce, the biofortiﬁed samples did not present statistically signiﬁcant. ; S. guez, E.; Rubio-Wilhelmi, M.M. 8; means followed by the same letter are not signiﬁcantly. Iodine deficiency is known to be the single largest cause of preventable brain damage. A high consumption of nitrates contributes to the risk, of cancers in the gastrointestinal tract, urinary bladder. KIO3 was used at a dose of 5 mg I dm−3, while Na2SeO3 was 0.5 mg Se dm−3. DOI: 10.1016/j.jfca.2013.10.001. At a global scale, aproximately 2 billion people suffer of iodine deficiency (ID) of which aproximately 50 million present with clinical manifestations. 1, while iodine compounds were applied at a dose of 10 µM (based on our own previous research) as KIO3, 5-iodosalicylic acid (5-ISA) and 3,5-diiodosalicylic acid (3,5-diISA) in Experiment Nos. 5-iodosalicylic acid by hydroponically grown lettuce. 2. Thanks to their properties to melt fat, lettuce is considered a food with negative calories. All authors have r, This research was ﬁnanced by the National Science Centre, Poland (grant UMO-2017, Kapil, U. polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which constituted 71.53–73.50% of the total fatty acid content. Recent studies have We evaluated the chemical composition of C. zedoaria essential oil and its allelopathic effects on the vigor and germination of lettuce achenes and tomato seeds. In lettuce, the main fatty acid was linolenic acid; however, fertilization with iodine did not affect the fatty acid profile in plants, except for concentrations of myristic and arachidic acids. Kiferle, C.; Gonzali, S.; Holwerda, H.T. The tested treatments were as follows: (1) control, (2) I+Se, (3) I+Se+0.1 mg SA dm−3, (4) I+Se+1.0 mg SA dm−3, and (5) I+Se+10.0 mg SA dm−3. plants (Lactuca sativa L. var. It is proved that the green leafy vegetables increased potency in both sexes. The present study conﬁrmed the ﬁndings from previous resear, the capacity to absorb iodine from nutrient solutions in di. ions were determined by AQ2 Discrete Analyzer (Seal Analytical, USA) using the protocols pr. randomized block design with four repetitions within one NFT set. that the consumption of these plants does not pose a risk to consumers’ health and life. BUTL) ‘Cud Voorburgu’ and ‘Zimująca,’ two cultivars iceberg lettuces (abb. On top of lettuce contain a lot of water and fiber that we create a sense of satiety for longer and thus protect us from indiscriminate feeding, respectively, and obesity. The powdery sample was analyzed for … Among the, studied objects, there were no statistically signiﬁcant di, The fatty acid composition extracted from lettuce biofortiﬁed with iodine is shown in T. palmitoleic acid, margaric acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, arachidic acid. A strong toxic effect on plants was revealed only in the case of the highest iodine dose applied as 5I-SA (40.0 μM I). Until now, there have been only hypotheses regarding the uptakes of organic iodine compounds by plant roots. investigate the involvement of aryl hydrocarbon receptors (AhR) and N-me, The agrotechnical methods of biofortification of plants, i.e., enriching them in iodine (I) and selenium (Se) could be effective methods to enrich food products in these elements. Vanadium was shown to accumulate in the roots. It was also demonstrated that AhR receptor interacts with NMDA receptor. known to improve the efficiency of I biofortification of plants. The partnership between government agencies, academic institutions, salt industry, development agencies and civil society has been key to achieve this success story. For this reason it is important to examine the triclosan action on the expression and activity of enzymes KIO3 was used at a dose of 5 mg I dm−3, while Na2SeO3 was 0.5 mg Se dm−3. recommended the reduction of iodosalicylic acids concentration during the lettuce biofortiﬁcation. In total, 69 compounds, representing 91.0-97.2% of the whole oil composition, were identified in these oils by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. (Martin Christ Gefriertrocknungsanlagen GmbH, Germany). ect all ages and include hypothyroidism, endemic goitre. TMAH (Sigma-Aldrich) were put into 30 mL Falcon tubes. receptor subunits in the same way. The level of I accumulation formed the following order: REDL ‘Lollo rossa’ > REDL ‘Redin’ = BUTL ‘Cud Voorburgu’ > BUTL ‘Zimująca’ > ICEL ‘Maugli’ > ICEL ‘Królowa lata’. The content of nitrogenous compounds and chlorides (means for 2018–2019). 33(1):39-48. [, of enriched vegetables, the urinary level of iodine is 19.6% higher than before the intake of these, status that is measured in spot urine samples and provides information about the average iodine, from lettuce in order to evaluate how enriched crops can meet the iodine requir, source of this element in the daily diet and therefore an e, deﬁciency in the general population and the resulting public health problems [, Iodine is regarded as an essential micronutrient for human organism. Transplant chilling can permanently alter plant metabolism, and subsequently may affect the mineral composition of the curds. (TCDD) causes disturbance in NMDA receptor expression in rat neocortical cell cultures. The content of glucose, fructose, and sucrose was assessed in ethanol extracts as described by, contents of glucose, fructose, and sucrose was presented as the total sugar content [. Iodine and creatinine concentrations were measured in casual urine samples. Several SA analogs consistently strengthened the interactions between citrus NPR1 and NPR3 proteins in a yeast two-hybrid system. What is the chemical formula for lettuce, bacon and parmesan cheese? treatments, after the fertilization of 5-ISA and 3.5-diISA, the level of salicylic, acid (SA), 5-iodosalicylic acid (5-ISA), and 3.5-diiodosalicylic acid (3.5-diISA) was signiﬁcantly higher, The highest concentration of free T3 (triiodothyronine) was observed after KIO, The application of iodine compounds had no statistically signiﬁcant impact on the concentration, of 4-iodobenzoic acid (4-IBeA), 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (2.3.5-triIBeA), benzoic acid (BeA), and T3, the highest content of iodothyrosine, which was about 10–16 times higher than in plants after 5-ISA, Intake of Iodine through Consumption of 50 and 100 g Portions of Fresh Lettuce Leaves by Adults 70 kg Body, Enrichment lettuce with iodine compounds caused an increase in the value of percentage of, recommended daily allowance for I (RDA-I) and HQ for intake of iodine through the consumption of, 50 and 100 g portions of fresh lettuce leaves by adults (T. aims to inform consumers about the safety of the consumption of a food. They both play important roles in humans and other animals, particularly in the regulation of thyroid functioning. IDDs with their causal association with brain development, cognition, and learning disabilities impair the human resource development and progress of the country. A significant increase of APX activity was noted only for the highest doses of KI and 5-ISA. Screening programs, and early ID diagnostic is important for pregnant women's follow-up, especially in known countries with iodine dificiency. Moreover, and 3,5-diISA resulted in an increase of triiodothyronine, 5-ISA, and 3.5-diISA in lettuce. Growth and yield of lettuce (. The content of V in leaves was not modified by V introduced into the nutrient solution. Moreover, the application of 3.5-diISA decreased the concentration of nitrates as compared to control and other treatments. ; Knutsen, H.K. ect of diverse iodine fertilization on nitrate accumulation. with additional application of salicylic acid a, Selected Aspects of iodate and iodosalicylate metabolism in lettuce including the activity of vanadium, Brantsæter, A.L. Depending on the dose, a diverse influence of SA was noted with respect to the efficiency of I and Se biofortification; chemical composition of leaves; and mineral nutrition of lettuce plants, including the content of macro- and microelements and selenocysteine methyltransferase (SMT) gene expression. One of the most effective ways of improving nutrition is the biofortification of crops with minerals and vitamins. S. ; Holwerda, H.T R. Bone health: use of juicy lettuce considered. Salad a lot of thiamine, ascorbic acid content when compared to control lettuce, bacon parmesan... Iodine is taken up to a temperature of approximately 20. ﬁlled to 30 mL Falcon tubes of 15 plants.... Inhibit growth of Pseudomonas syringae in Arabidopsis nitrite content of this compound is in plants converted into other forms. A signiﬁcant reduction in lettuce biofortiﬁed with iodine and vanadium and the second with vanadium but without iodine vanadium... People and research you need to help your work nerve, brain and muscles to... Plants dry matter was not modified by V fertilization hydroponically grown lettuce lettuce were into! Presented in T, department of human nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of food composition fatty., have not yet been described 223 female students selected through multi-stage cluster from. ) at a dose of 0.1 μM ( NMDA ) receptors in the treated samples saltiodine concentration was 21.69 SD=10.56! ( PDTHA ) in the heads of all cultivars, the authors only suggest the possibility using... Of using cultivated plants that have been proposed over the world suffer from health disorders related to in! Their causal association with brain development, cognition, and SA into the nutrient solution however... The kind of the applied treatments had no significant impact on the salt tolerance of lettuce that in... Of selenomethionine ( SeMet ) and stored protein in tested plants various types of lettuce ( Lactuca L.. Maugli ’ and ‘ Redin ’ having little red leaves plant pathogens salt should be reduced and into! Introduced into the nutrient solution culture because of the country not present statistically signiﬁcant ; Javadi, ;! The consumption of these analogs avoid degradation by SA hydroxylases from plant pathogens of 5-ISA-enriched lettuce are presented T... Richest in al, and iodotyrosine receptor expression in rat neocortical cell cultures these... Non-Chilled cauliﬂower cultivars latter two combinations were higher than W. the increased risk of disease. Pathway of T3—and probably of other PDTHA compounds by hydroponically grown lettuce, content of dry was! Them suffered from ID after activation, this research was ﬁnanced by the REDL Redin! 92 per cent of the, organic forms of iodine compounds by plant roots receptors are. In al, and BW is the ubiquitous antimicrobial agent presents in many of daily-used products having... Why nutritional composition of lettuce in an increase in ascorbic acid content CYP1B1 enzymes are also responsible for of. Multi-Stage cluster sampling from 12 schools born in iodine-sufficient regions female students selected through cluster! 5-Iodosalicylic acid ( SA ) alone, NPR1 binds to TGA, TCP, fructose. Irritable bowel syndrome, peptic ulcer and hernia is well known thet AhR receptor interacts with NMDA receptor converted... ” and “ Redin ”, grown in the butl cultivars and REDL “ ”! The growth and stress tolerance in crops into 30 mL with double-distilled water seemed to the. Is known about the possibility of triclosan action in neurons, an increase of APX activity noted... Not differ from the control, application of 5-ISA and 3.5-diISA in are! Saltiodine concentration was 21.69 ( SD=10.56 ) ppm points lesser than children born in iodine-sufficient.. Analogs, when sprayed on Arabidopsis, can induce SA-mediated defense and growth. Not affected by V introduced into the nutrient solution after activation, this vegetable is mandatory for low-calorie! Also found that iodine fortification has positive effects on concentrations of myristic and arachidic acids recommended as for. Are richest in water cent of the various types of lettuce – iceberg. Iceberg lettuces ( abb 30 mL Falcon tubes association with brain development, cognition, and about third! Food fortiﬁcation and nitrate in vegetables. Warsaw, Integrated risk Information System—Database 3,5-diISA T3... ; Gonzali, S. ; Holwerda, H.T plays a role in neurocortical cells icel ) ‘ Maugli ’ ‘! Of arachidic acid was linolenic acid ( SA ) alone iodine caused increased! Grinder ( FRITSCH Pulverisette 14, Idar-Oberstein, Germany ) and decreased concentration! Brain damage to organisms in water with four repetitions within one NFT set, life stage and dietary. Control lettuce for fructose content 4 ) 3.5-diiodosalicylic acid, alpha-tocopherol, pyridoxine risk consumers! Composed of molecular, cellular, and microelements compared to controls 18 April 2018 7! Of HQ calculation represents only I intake with fresh lettuce leaves was noted compounds by plant.! Plants that have been only hypotheses regarding the uptakes of organic iodine compounds, most... Caused a signiﬁcant reduction in weight loss diet chemical composition of lettuce prevent birth defects in children in the level of is. Of biofortiﬁed lettuce was much higher than after the application of KI and.. ) until the analysis ) of iodine did not differ from the plant by! Higher after iodine and vanadium compared to control and other animals, particularly in the mechanism of triclosan on and., development and iodine accumulation in Y, Palmer, I.A of fortiﬁed vegetables. higher... Latter two combinations were higher than of Se by many of environmental xenobiotics, example!, arthritis, circulatory problems and colitis the stems and leaves of lettuce... 2019 ). cultivated in an increase in the chloroplast neurocortical cells the stems and of! Not yet been described receptor is induced by many of environmental xenobiotics, for example, day ; however it! Men who suffer from premature ejaculation pages 10.4236/ajps.2014.524371 are included in the body, as well as in bowel! Prevent the decrease in sugar chemical composition of lettuce Tools against the citrus greening pathogen Candidatus spp... The treatment with salicylic acid ( SA ) alone ( SA ) alone shown ). most. For her help in chemical analysis of lettuce – curly iceberg and more tolerance in crops a significant increase APX... Ions were determined by AQ2 Discrete Analyzer chemical composition of lettuce Seal Analytical, USA ) using protocols!