It was a difficult and expensive job. By the end of April we had recorded twenty-two potential buyers, besides some "nobbut looking". Strikes and Riots: The Cotton Famine: King Cotton: Textile Engineering: Decline and Fall: Strikes and Riots . 200–1. While no one disputes that industrial smoke is a nuisance, it is a small offender compared with domestic smoke. The price was 6/- (4) a ton. He also tweeted support for Cotton’s plan to deploy active-duty soldiers from combat units such as the 101st Airborne and 82nd Airborne Divisions to deal with rioters. They stayed at Tockholes eight years till 1885/6, then turned it over to six Furthergate lads who formed the Hollinshead Mill Co. William Henry Howarth was one of them; his sister married George Hindle. We started cautiously by putting Royal weaving shed out for offers from several brokers we knew. Overwhelmed, they asked what large increase in stipend went with it, to be told the position was honorary, but carried the privilege of smoking in the upstairs offices. The item you've selected wasn't added to your basket. (4) For those unfamiliar with pre-decimal coinage 6 shillings! We have a conveyance dated 3 June 1858 from the Archbishop of Canterbury to Mr. Henry Ward of "two pieces of land, part of an estate called the Brookhouse Farm, with the dwelling houses and other buildings thereon". I assume Alhambra to be a trade name. (28), and the surplus must be re-exports of Chinese cloth, which should have paid duty; Empire products had free entry. John Duckworth, Blackburn, lost £78,000 1961 and £11,000 in 1962. Steam engines need a lot of breaking and handling and £5 a ton was the best price offered. More space seems to have been taken with later years, but that was the part I saw best. Royal Mill land was bought in January 1906 and the building carried out at once. On the 14 July the trade for the first time was given figures. . (35) The looms were in fact in good working order. The looms we had scrapped slowly down the years would go on this pile, with usable spare parts preserved in a cellar. Right or wrong, the job was done. Eventually taken over by Mather & Platt who were absorbed by a multi-national in their turn. A lot of the trade had been quite happy before they came into being. There was a post-war boom and slump, but the rot had set in. The prisoners were from Belthorne, and had been taken while trying to dispose of silver looted from Clayton Grange. his employer's regret, and started agenting Turkey Red (3) . Philanthropic and civic duty. [7], In 2018 artists Jeannette Ehlers and La Vaughn Belle unveiled a 7 meters (23 ft)-tall statue of Mary Thomas, seated on a throne with a cane knife and torch. In the old days the most economical factory was the one with the biggest production a square yard and they were designed with as many looms as could be squeezed in, with the minimum space between, usually 9"-10" between beam flanges at the back of a loom, and 15" at the narrowest in front. On 24 November 1917 a resolution was passed "that we pay Mr Robert Hindle £2 a week while he is in H.M. As I could see little left to do, I refused this and asked to be released at the week-end. In addition, 12 laborers were condemned to death and hanged on October 5 1878. George Hindle junior became a director 9 May 1908. Discover (and save!) The whole assets with the exception of the buildings had been converted to cash, government bonds and short term loans, and Royal Mill was practically sold (39). At the time they could poach labour, later they were compelled to adhere to the higher rate. There was still about £11,000 banked with the Board of Trade, but this was chicken feed, about 11d a share, and the empty buildings just a nuisance. In May 1908 the articles were altered to conform with "private" company regulations, and in October 1908 Manley, Haythornthwaite & Co. were appointed auditors in place of Thos Waterworth & Co. It was, therefore, ironic & sad that this was his last order. In November 1931 George Nelson left the partnership after some argument and in Dec 1932 E. & G. Hindle Ltd took over all assets in liquidation of their liability to us, keeping Mr Shepherd on as manager until he died in January 1957 at 80 years old, very active, and at the office when he was taken ill a fortnight before he died. In 1818, attempts to fix a minimum wage for textile workers failed and there was a strike of handloom weavers. A "Profit-sharing" scheme under the heading of "Special Loans for Workpeople" was carried on from the old partnership. [4], One year after the events of Fireburn, in October 1879, new contracts were written which would supposedly increase wages for laborers. He was made a director in March that year. The Deccan Riots of 1875 targeted conditions of debt peonage (kamiuti) to moneylenders. Up to 1942 the weaver always paid carriage on both yarn and cloth. It was rebuilt after the fire and pulled down in 1955 and broken up into small building lots. My father typed this up after he retired from the cotton trade in 1960, when E & G’s was put into liquidation and wound up by the shareholders. This freedom would be short-lived, as plantation owners quickly began devising new regulations. However, these contracts were weighted in favor of the plantation owners, and thus resulted in little to no improvement in the laborers' lives. In October 1878, laborers gathered in Frederiksted to demand higher wages and better working conditions. One of his sons, Billy, was still a tackler. Hopwood's Mill has its windows broken. - No doubt teaching him to be thrifty. At no time after the war, in the period of rationing and until the slump set in, could we have collected at one and the same time sufficient orders, supplies and labour to reopen it. Similar schemes were drawn up for spinning and doubling and finishing, though the finishers intimated that they had little or no redundant machinery. Money from their father's estate in Finland was put into the business. After a fortnight we never looked back. Laborers were forbidden from leaving their plantations without written permission from the plantation owner. In January 1920 the capital was increased to £275,000. From September 1934 we rented an office and stockroom at 2 Aldermanbury Ave, in the City of London, mainly in connection with Foster Shepherd & Co. Sep 20, 2014 - This Pin was discovered by Catherine Ingham. The loom compensation rate was unexpectedly high, our average was £71/10/- a loom, and by the end of August qualifying for an extra 5% to speed up the scheme, 95,000 looms had been offered. Provided there was no great diversity of types of cloth woven, materials plus twice the weaver's wages was a good pricing system, it was tied to production and checkable in total every stocktaking. (31) The local Conservative MPs who had been briefed by their constituents were threatened with withdrawal of the whip if they forced a division. In all my working life I never knew a government that was on our side. The expenditure involved required a building licence (24), the completed plan had to pass the Factory Inspector and it had to be designed to move as few shafts as possible. This was a year of the cotton riots. He was also Chairman of Blackburn Rovers Football Club. , and Ephraim on 8 February 1939. It ran for some years with a small success. 39 Deccan Riots Report, Appendix C, Statement on pp. One of the earliest available trading accounts shows sales of cloth, twelve months to Sept 1894 - £151,082. Ruined Haslingden Mill. Whether this volume would continue or was panic buying was open to question. Whether their sales were less than their costs is best answered by the fact that their national borrowings were still unpaid by 1959. In 1929 we bought 100 automatic looms, 10 Northrop pirn changers and 90 Vickers Stafford shuttle changers. I do not know if this was a successor to Manley, Haythornthwaite & Co. or a breakaway company. Prices may have gone up by 1894, but even at half today's prices of 80d-90d for 60s beams, this would be a good turnover. Interest was a minimum of 4% and the same as the ordinary shareholders if above that figure up to a maximum of 20%, both figures tax-free. They wanted the weaving sheds for warehousing. We had more production per loom off that shed than any other, but were fighting a losing battle, and they wove out in January 1959. Most of the gearing was sold, but only one engine and one boiler. The same accounts show a dogcart at £17 and a bay horse called Charlie at £35, and various cows and geese at the farm. Violence & the Lancashire weaver's strike in 1878 - Blackburn. your own Pins on Pinterest It was soon after these riots that Ephraim left his job, to All of this is expensive and whether it would be "suitable and adequate" in another year or two is open to question. By Libby Cathey. Saved by Great History Teaching. The now free laborers were forced, by law, to sign contracts which bound them and their families to the plantations on which they worked. This left E. & G. Hindle high and dry, but they managed, by putting a smaller bore in the single-action engine and increasing the pressure, to start the two hundred looms on their own, eventually absorbing the whole shed. As our firm alone since the war had paid £2 million in taxes, any similar scheme that would put the trade in general back into the profit-earning taxpaying class, was not charity but sound economics from the taxgatherers' view. [8], The Three Queens Fountain at Blackbeard's Castle, St. Thomas honors Queens Mary, Agnes, and Mathilda, T-shirt with Fireburn and Three Queens motif, St. Croix 2015, "Wayne James Says He's Found a 4th Fireburn 'Queen, "Denmark Gets Statue of a 'Rebel Queen' Who Led Fiery Revolt Against Colonialism", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=1878_St._Croix_labor_riot&oldid=995649574, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 22 December 2020, at 04:12. The Great Railroad Strike of 1877, sometimes referred to as the Great Upheaval, began on July 14 in Martinsburg, West Virginia, after the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad (B&O) cut wages for the third time in a year. There was a big difference between tariffs for lighting alone and lighting with power. Half a day's measuring and calculating gave me a figure of 140 tons, of which 62½ tons was in the 24 foot diameter flywheel, and we sold it for £800. As Ian told the story in later years, it was the convenor who refused to go back to the old system. The difference in preparation costs was never more than guess work and usually ignored altogether. The price of raw cotton had greatly increased, and poor crops in America kept the price up for several years after. The weaver's spokesmen came in to see Ian and were naturally somewhat distressed. In January 1941 Canton was sold to Canton Mills Ltd. Bankfield had been leased and was finally sold in January 1947. (17) A system of interchangeable punched cards that control the weaving of the cloth so that any desired pattern can be obtained automatically. of Blackburn centre. George Hindle had three sons, Ephraim Haworth, George and Robert, and four daughters. Bastfield Mill was respaced in 1948. Alternate pillars were often downspouts. It is first mentioned in E. & G. Hindle's connection on 19 June 1890 when Mr. Peel leased it to Ephraim & George Hindle. This meant weighing loose spares and using tables for shafts and girders. Naturally we shelved it until they could get over their teething trouble and could get their ideas on price back to normal. 1878 Blackburn Riots Col Jackson COTTON Lancashire Political Commemorative Jug * Sign in for checkout Check out as guest . Professional advice was so inconsistent as to be valueless. 1878 Blackburn Riots Col Jackson COTTON Lancashire Political Commemorative Jug * Item information. The partnership had its good and bad times, but in twenty-nine years it had made two or three thousand pounds grow into £80,000. In the middle 1930's (36 - 37) we sold all our spinning to the Spindles Board and closed Bankfield weaving. (38) Trade jargon for any leftover lengths of usable or saleable cotton in small quantities. with us at Bastfield up to June 1950. A field, owned by Clayton Grange, separated the houses. Whether the production was desirable was doubtful, it could easily be absorbed. We had a strike for a week, then got the worst opponent (26), an average weaver, and a youngster to give it a trial for three weeks. In 1891 he sold to Brookhouse Spinning Co. Ltd, who sold it to E & G Hindle Ltd in Aug 1937. 1878 Get premium, high resolution news photos at Getty Images In 1940 it got blitzed and shortly afterwards Ian, on leave from the RAF could not get within four or five blocks of it for rubble. (29) Ian would quote that it would be necessary for a Hong Kong weaver to work a 30-hr. (23) They were less than half a mile apart. (30) When Macmillan the Prime Minister at the time, came to open the first stretch of motorway the Preston By-pass, later part of the M6 - Ian was invited to the celebratory dinner afterwards. 15.05.2015 - Vireya hat diesen Pin entdeckt. Hitchon bought the shell and converted it from the rectangular house existing then to the L-shape we know today. To ask a man to break the tools of his trade was like the testing of Abraham. After the war it might possibly have been sold as a weaving mill, but as this would probably have taken away many old Royal weavers from Bastfield (23) in a time of scarcity, other trades were canvassed. (33) The shareholders could not sell their shares without the approval of the directors for both price and purchaser. 40 M.A.R.D. The original shareholders were Mr. & Mrs. Ephraim senior, Mr. & Mrs. George senior, F. R. & O. H. Haythornthwaite and Ephraim H. Hindle junior. (39) John's eldest son. It was reported in World Trade Statistics that Hong Kong was China's best customer for textiles. Grades of muslin are known by such names as book, mull, swiss, and sheeting. Swallow Street was much further away, probably about a mile and a half. In only one of these years our government made a free gift of £50 million to India with no strings attached. If satisfactory we were prepared to buy a quantity. (2), opposite Vicarage lane. Working on the published total loomage in Hong Kong and the types of cloth sent to England, most English weavers believed that our imports from there were in excess of their making capacity The cotton industry resumed work after 1865, but under changed conditions. (34) I believe that this was an order for Marks & Spencer. In fact we were the first in Blackburn to apply it. A number of pubs across Australia have been listed on the retail market as owners look to offload their business on the back of a difficult year because of Covid-19. On 12 March 1963 the fifth instalment raised the total to 39/3 a share, but by the year end August 1965 part of Swallow St (41) was still held, without much prospect, and a new government credit squeeze was on. Hard Times By Gerald Schofield; The Cotton Famine; George Burnett's Diary 1862-1863; Cotton Industry 18th to 20th Century . On 16 August 34/- a share was paid out. It is a well-known fact that in a heat wave in Blackburn, the view across the town is clear. The three women were sentenced to jail, and served their terms in Denmark. the weaving sheds to a tufted carpet machine company which did not last very long. British cotton manufacturers established Manchester Cotton Company in 1859 to encourage cotton exports. Herbert Haythornthwaite; additional shareholders being Grace and Elizabeth Hindle. "[6], The riots caused great destruction to property on the islands. When they eventually came, and were erected by their fitter, one seized up after a week's running. It is used to deflect the warp to either side of the main sheet of fabric. Later on many firms were running six looms to a weaver at the four-loom rates, which was against their association's agreements and not very clever. Fletcher Cooke, our local MP, made a speech opposing the reform which was almost verbatim what Ian had written for him. The decision to close down was taken. The weavers were only responsible for the actual process. your own Pins on Pinterest your own Pins on Pinterest The sale of remnants was on 5 July 1960 and brought in a further £2,200. ... Before the 1860s, 3/4th of the raw cotton imports of Britain came from America. On 25 January 1907 the assets were transferred to E. & G. Hindle Ltd., with directors Ephraim Hindle, George Hindle, Frank R. Haythornthwaite, Ephraim H. Hindle, 0. Vol. They were glad to see it go. Frank married George Hindle's daughter Margaret, and Walter married another daughter Alice. In the very old days, weavers' wages were direct piece-work; total weavers' wages for six months would usually be more than other costs on the trading accounts. Feb 16, 2017 - Blackburn Museum and Art Gallery paints a picture of how the area has changed in a new exhibition of over 40 paintings dating from 1848 to 2008. By the early 1980's he was approaching retirement and sold the business to a firm of accountants in Darwen. A History of E and G Hindle; After the Cotton Famine; Depression in the industry; Improvements in the industry; Cotton industry in the Wars; India Mill; The rise of the middle class; Cotton riots 1878; Roe Lee Mill Royal visit; Cotton Industry Decline. A lot of Irish labour came into the town about this time, as they were having a little more trouble at home than usual. It was all mulls (5) to start with not liking to compete in dhooties with D. W. Taylor whom Ephraim had left. We contacted other metal brokers outside the cotton trade some of whom were unfamiliar with cotton machinery and were talking in prices per ton, £8 to £8/10/-, and I started estimating weights. With a weaving shed totted up and a basic figure of £8 a ton to work on, we did a lot better. I used to raid the fent cupboard for material for my shirts and have them made-to-measure locally in Blackburn. A hay cart backed up to the steps. This contained both spinning and weaving at the same mill. George Ephraim joined the RAF in 1943 and was discharged late 1945. On 15 February 1971 the UK changed from a £1 made up of 20 shillings (1 shilling was 12 pence (d)) to a £1 made up of 100 new pence (p). Their cloth was sold in Bolton and later in Manchester. There was a big demand and a general upset of trading conditions, as was to be expected. When that faded, we made tablecloth brocade. The better qualities of muslin are fine and smooth in texture and are woven from evenly spun warps and wefts, or fillings. When we first started weaving rayon we bought it sized on weaver's beam, while the bulk of the cottons were in cop (27), and had to be wound, warped and sized. About two days later Ephraim was standing on the steps of the town hall, one of the few safe places in the town for anyone connected with the administrative side of the trade. (18) I can remember one son as an American serviceman over here during the Second World War, since he gave me my first ever 'Lifesavers'! Kumar makes much of the considerable landholding changes in Parner. At Swallow St the brigade came to carry a wrecker down from a crane over the engine, with a broken leg. In January 1920 the ordinary capital was again increased, by capitalising undistributed profits and the Loan accounts. The worst looms were scrapped above the surplus due to respacing and better looms moved down from Royal. In 1884, 60s (7) beams were taken in stock at Commercial Mill at 131/2d lb. These folk stayed a few years at Tockholes and then came down into Blackburn, bringing the name with them. (28) A cylindrical or conical mass of thread or yarn, wound on a quill or tube. He thought little of it, knowing the cavalry were on town, until he saw one of the sentries holding his bayonet at him. (11) John went into partnership with Walter, founding the family firm of accountants, Haythornthwaite & Norris. Shafting went for re-rolling at £12 a ton and girders could be used again at £22. (32), after tax, a lifetime's savings will not make the holder wealthy and death duties are likely to cripple his heirs and draw off the whole of his independent estate. This was rushed through Parliament with indecent haste and without division, the second reading on the 4th June The engine was dated 1874 and was so well balanced that in 1950 a penny could be stood on edge on the engine bed and the engine stopped and started without shaking it over (8). Local organisations were federated into a central body and had run the job successfully before the Cotton Board existed, at very low cost. We could get no delivery promise; price was not firm, but "as ruling at date of delivery". In 1944 we ordered two new automatic looms. To this day the older folk still call a weaving shed a "shop". Grace's brother Richard had gone out to Vasa, Finland, with some looms from Blackburn, which he helped to erect, and stayed on there as weaving manager, marrying a Swedish girl Olga Carlstrom. The mayor of Blackburn had had to read the Riot Act in the market place and a company of the military had been drafted to the town. It seems a pity they did not pick Courtaulds Ltd instead. Trade was dropping, and while the firm had generally spare cash, this had been earmarked as capital, and dividends could only be paid out of profits. pref. If it had passed into unfriendly hands the complications could have become unbearable. A fent-dealer was considered a term of derision for small time operators! Buxbaum in Vienna, the two brothers fled from the Nazis to Australia "as far away as they could get", changed their name to Buckland worked up a prosperous business importing dress goods. (7) Cloth is defined, amongst other parameters, by the weight and density of the yarn in the cloth. The Lancashire Cotton Famine, also known as the Cotton Famine or the Cotton Panic (1861–65), was a depression in the textile industry of North West England, brought about by overproduction in a time of contracting world markets. We had to make our own minds up about values, through market research. Bradford Office was cleared at about the stocktaking value at September. A History of E and G Hindle; After the Cotton Famine; Depression in the industry; Improvements in the industry; Cotton industry in the Wars; India Mill; The rise of the middle class; Cotton riots 1878; Roe Lee Mill Royal visit; Cotton Industry Decline. Probably the looms were £9-£10 each, new. When the American Civil War broke out in 1861, the imports from America fell miserably. In September 1908 it was decided to build an extension to Bankfield Mill for the preparation and weaving of "Fibre Matting". His brothers bailed him out. I have tried to stick to fact and omit opinion. Ephraim Hindle was a cashier and clerk with D. W. Taylor who were engaged in the dhootie (1) trade with India. Colonel Jackson's house. day if all the cloth was legitimate Hong Kong manufacture. W. L. Berry was manager at Brookhouse, he later went to manage a mill in Russia. There was never any suggestion that Indian looms should be scrapped as being too inefficient to run without tariff barriers and export subsidies; nor that the labour released be set to agriculture on a scale sufficient to feed themselves; nor that our charity payments be spent in this country on textiles carrying no tariff on entry into India. Not bad after 30 years standing idle in an unheated shed. In September 1906 it was in the books at £22,302 with 660 looms, £33.8 a loom. In August 1919 all 2799 ordinary shares in Brookhouse Spinning; Co. at £25 each were bought by the firm and offered to the shareholders, who did not accept. In December 1917 it was again increased from £120,000 to £172,500 by transfers from the loan accounts, and the 750 unissued Preference shares were turned into £10 ordinary and issued at £15 each. Ian had refused a request to stand as Conservative Candidate against her. In post-war trading, half years ending March 1947 to March 1960, we paid out 156% gross, £152,944 net dividend, put £271,792 to the P/L account, after Income and Profits taxes of £438,387. June 2, 2020, 9:20 PM • 12 min read. It was used by Ministry of Supply for storage. In April 1931 we guaranteed an overdraft for Foster Shepherd & Co. Bradford. He added the Tower Block on the Wilpshire end and the coach house/stable block, pigeon-cote and gate lodge to the Ribchester side. Being Jews, they were in trouble with Hitler, and one son never went back. His son, George Ephraim, came into the firm in 1927, and Alfred Ian Haythornthwaite started in 1929. The second partner (14) was Charles Walter Haythornthwaite. This meant that a new beam was usually carried into the shed on the tackler's back and he got another tackler to help him lift it off into the loom. The revolt started on October 1, 1878 and was suppressed after several days of looting and burning. We took out the borders and carried on with brocades for the home trade, dressing gowns and fur-coat linings. India put a tariff on piece-goods and found the garments coming instead. Bastfield Mill was subject to ground rent, with certain conditions of maintenance. He was the wealthiest person in Maine from 1850 to 1878, and is considered to have introduced both the Efficiency and Taylorism movements to the economy of Maine. We told the makers what type of cloth we were weaving and asked them to do their best. However, Governor Garde was confident he and his men had the situation under control, and turned the ships away, though some soldiers borrowed guns from the British ships. Apr 30, 2014 - This Pin was discovered by Helen Renee. A man named Hopwood owned the mill, which had been empty some time. We even bought sewing machines in the mid-twenties and made up handkerchiefs for the big stores. It was bought from John Southworth & Co., four brothers. The coarser varieties are often of irregular yarns and textures, bleached, unbleached, or piece-dyed and are generally finished by the application of sizing. In 1965 imported yardage was still well above home production and giving rise to bitter complaints which brought no government action.