Adopting the suggestions of Shriberg, Campbell, Karlsson, McSweeney and Nadler (2003), the segmental and suprasegmental characteristics the clinician will look for with CAS as a suspected, provisional or working diagnosis are listed below. Your work on neural correlates of speech sound perception does not support a view of CAS as a pure motor planning deficit that is often associated with ‘additional’ cognitive-linguistic difficulties. Several studies revealed that MMN responses to speech sounds that constitute language-specific phonological contrasts are greater in native speakers of that language than in control participants who do not speak that particular language (Cheour et al., 1998; Dehaene-Lambertz, 1997; Dehaene-Lambertz, Dupoux & Gout, 2000; Näätänenet al., 1997; Pulvermüller et al. inconsistent errors on consonants and vowels in repeated productions of syllables or words, In contrast to the ASHA CAS Technical Report, the RCSLT policy statement recommended the term DVD should only apply to idiopathic cases, where there is not an associated known neurological or neurobehavioural disorder. A difficulty associated with this commonality of characteristics is that, when families who do not have a background in SLP/SLT seek out information without professional guidance, suspecting or even convinced that their child has CAS, they will often recognise enough ‘features’ of CAS to be certain that they ‘know’ what their child’s speech problem is. Through the course of language acquisition, there is a gradual process of ‘tuning’ to the native language that results in an eventual insensitivity to non-native speech sounds, indicating a ‘neural commitment to the acoustic and statistical properties of native language phonetic units’ (Kuhl et al., 2005, p. 238). simple contexts versus more complex or novel contexts, Such implications impact the assessment and intervention process, right from the opening moments of the initial consultation or case history interview. Vowel errors are less common in children who don’t have CAS tʃəˈɹatˌsɪst Since 2007, exciting treatment research has begun to emerge, exploring intervention approaches for CAS (McCabe & Ballard, A47; Strand, A45; Williams & Stephens, A46). SentencesMake up stimuli of increasing length to suit the child.Dad.Hi dad.Hi daddy. A41. Of the available research reviewed, maximal performance tasks of multi-syllable production (e.g., diadochokinetic tasks, non-word repetition, and multi-syllabic word production) and observation of prosody (especially lexical stress) were reported to be the most informative. The report also makes for absorbing reading for those with the interest and inclination. But then, in an area that enjoys its spirited controversies, this idea does not appeal to all! Vowel errors are less common in children who don’t have CAS, Vowel errors are more common, and more persistent in CAS. Does it affect the child’s presentation/‘image’. Several studies revealed that MMN responses to speech sounds that constitute language-specific phonological contrasts are greater in native speakers of that language than in control participants who do not speak that particular language (Cheour et al., 1998; Dehaene-Lambertz, 1997; Dehaene-Lambertz, Dupoux & Gout, 2000; Näätänenet al., 1997; Pulvermüller et al. A recently developed assessment tool, the dynamic evaluation of motor speech skill (DEMSS, Strand et al., 2013; Strand, A45) addresses the challenge of assessing younger or less verbal children by using dynamic assessment at varying utterance levels. Neurophysiological methods with high temporal precision, such as EEG, can capitalise on the very fine temporal distinctions between different domains of language processing (Osterhout, 2000), and the ERP method has been successfully used to isolate specific neural responses implicated in distinct linguistic processes, including syntax, semantics and phonology (Rugg & Coles, 1995; see Friederici, 2000 for an overview). More varied use of phonotactic range within syllables and words. The four contributors to this chapter are Chantelle Highman (A41) on staying in touch with the juried literature, Karen Froud and Reem Khamis-Dakwar (A42) on the neural underpinnings of CAS, and Amy E. Skinder-Meredith (A43) on rating a child’s speech characteristics. Use PA Tests, e.g., SPAT-R (Neilson, 2003). The direction of causality remains opaque and it may not be possible to fully determine the causal relationships between the different components of a symptom complex like CAS. Although inconclusive about the nature of the underlying impairment at this stage, our preliminary investigation of CAS using neurophysiological methods strongly suggests that there is some representational involvement that is impacting the speech sound production disorder. Among the issues and concerns that arise in parent and family counselling, and in counselling ‘older’ children and youth with persisting SSD, are the potential long-term consequences of these conditions. 2001). This would result in a representational deficit involving the availability of too many options for articulation and processing. Joining the associated discussion groups to receive posts, which often include relevant abstracts, is a time-efficient way of staying connected with clinical and research issues. Use a process analysis (e.g., DEAP (Dodd et al., 2002), HAPP-3 (Hodson, 2004), The Quick Screener (QS) (Bowen, 1996)) and/or a Conversation Sample. In the committee’s proposed definition of CAS, ‘a core impairment in planning and/or programming [the] spatiotemporal parameters of movement sequences’ is described (ASHA, 2007b, p. 1), highlighting the importance of skilled motor movements underlying speech production. Adopting the suggestions of Shriberg, Campbell, Karlsson, McSweeney and Nadler (2003), the segmental and suprasegmental characteristics the clinician will look for with CAS as a suspected, provisional or working diagnosis are listed below. The report documented assessment considerations from researchers with substantial clinical experience (ASHA, 2007a, p. 54), which included the importance of differentiating performance on. These words are displayed in Figure 6.1. The examination of specific neurological features associated with CAS is different from ERP approaches, and cannot answer questions related to specific levels of linguistic processing and representation. This process, our preliminary findings (Froud & Khamis-Dakwar, 2012), and some implications for our understanding of CAS and other speech sound disorders, are described here. In phonological disorder, this manifests as systemic simplifications (substitution processes), such as stopping, gliding and fronting where one sound replaces another (see Table 2.4 for consumer-friendly descriptions and examples these error-types and more). Repetition after delay – no cues Use the Quick Vowel Screener (Bowen, 2010) and Speech Characteristics Rating (. As with speech sound disorders in general, there is still much scope (and an urgent need) for research addressing areas such as: Perhaps after implementing strategies to keep up to date with the literature, you will be motivated to make a positive contribution to addressing some of these areas, and in doing so, improve the outlook for our clients. Lost sounds/wordsSays a word and it is never heard again, keeps a word for a while then ‘loses’ it; words come and go. Long Term Phonology Goal: ... Short Term . Investigating your access to online journals and setting up automatic alerts for particular topics and journals’ table of contents will allow you to stay informed without having to repeatedly search for new information. Indeed, when surveyed, most clinicians report placing a high value on the importance of research, and desire to keep up to date with the evidence-base underpinning practice (Stephens & Upton, 2012; Vallino-Napoli & Reilly, 2004). Long Term Phonology Goal:Pt will remediate phonological processes to fewer than 20% of occurrences in conversation with fading cues within 6 months as assessed by a (standardized/nonstandardized) assessment. Look for deviant syllable structure errors (especially Initial Consonant Deletion and schwa insertion/addition, and replacing a consonant with a diphthong). Several studies revealed that MMN responses to speech sounds that constitute language-specific phonological contrasts are greater in native speakers of that language than in control participants who do not speak that particular language (Cheour et al., 1998; Dehaene-Lambertz, 1997; Dehaene-Lambertz, Dupoux & Gout, 2000; Näätänenet al., 1997; Pulvermüller et al. 10. Such impairment results in speech production and prosodic errors. simple contexts versus more complex or novel contexts, repetitions of the same stimuli versus repetitions of varying stimuli (e.g., sequential motion rates vs. alternating motion rates), and. If your student is unintelligible then they will likely have a phonological delay. Some of these contain not only the presentations, but also transcripts of frank discussions between the top researchers in the field, affording a more in-depth understanding of topic areas. Neurophysiological methods with high temporal precision, such as EEG, can capitalise on the very fine temporal distinctions between different domains of language processing (Osterhout, 2000), and the ERP method has been successfully used to isolate specific neural responses implicated in distinct linguistic processes, including syntax, semantics and phonology (Rugg & Coles, 1995; see Friederici, 2000 for an overview). repetitions of the same stimuli versus repetitions of varying stimuli (e.g., sequential motion rates vs. alternating motion rates), and simple contexts versus more complex or novel contexts, These changes to the available feature values of speech-sound representations are necessary for rapid, automatic and efficient processing (Dinnsen, 1996). Cognitionsee point 4 below Psychometric/Paediatric report. 212–213). DEAP Inconsistency Assessment (Dodd et al., 2002) uses single words, also observe CS. A recently developed assessment tool, the dynamic evaluation of motor speech skill (DEMSS, Strand et al., 2013; Strand, A45) addresses the challenge of assessing younger or less verbal children by using dynamic assessment at varying utterance levels. Suggest concrete ways that this might be accomplished even with children who don’t like books, keeping the demands on the parent reasonable and practical as they adjust to the diagnosis or suspected diagnosis. Simplifications in the form of syllable structure processes and phonotactic errors: e.g., ICD, FCD, CR, WSD Intervention goals that are common to phonological disorder and CAS Making use of sources that have already synthesised information for you, such as review articles, book chapters, meta-analyses and databases of interventions (e.g., speechBITE. 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