American businessman J. Paul Getty built his fortune as president of the Getty Oil Company. In November 1946 Wojtyła was ordained by Sapieha into the Catholic priesthood. A charismatic figure, John Paul used his influence to bring about political change and is credited with the fall of communism in his native Poland. John Paul II. He survived an assassination attempt in 1981. After the council’s conclusion in 1965, Wojtyła was appointed to Pope Paul VI’s Commission for the Study of Problems of the Family, Population, and Birth Rate. On September 30, 2013, Pope Francis announced that the canonizations of Pope John Paul II and Pope John XXIII would occur on April 27, 2014. He chose to say his first mass, assisted by Figlewicz, in Wawel Cathedral’s crypt chapel amid the sarcophagi of Polish monarchs and heroes, including those who had defended national freedom and European Christendom. After narrowly escaping a Nazi roundup of able-bodied men and boys in 1944, Wojtyła spent the rest of the war in the archbishop’s palace, disguised as a cleric. In the months that followed, Jews as well as non-Jewish cultural and political leaders, including professors and priests, were killed or deported to concentration camps by the Nazis, who considered the Slavs an inferior race. The Second Vatican Council introduced Wojtyła to issues including the role of the laity, the church’s relations with other religions, and its relations with the secular world. During World War II, when the Nazis invaded Poland, Karol secretly studied for the priesthood in an underground seminary established by the archbishop of Krakow. He then began two years of study in Rome, where he completed his first doctorate, an examination of the theology of St. John of the Cross. Jon Voight was originally offered the part of Pope John Paul II in this movie, but refused, giving Albert Finney the role instead. © 2021 Biography and the Biography logo are registered trademarks of A&E Television Networks, LLC. Back in Kraków, Wojtyła continued his studies in clandestine classes. If you would like to be automatically notified of site additions, changes, and when an entry for a Papal or Church document is added, become a … His unabashed Polish nationalism and his emphasis on nonviolent political activism aided the Solidarity movement in communist Poland in the 1980s and ultimately contributed to the peaceful dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991. More than 3 million people waited in line to say good-bye to their beloved religious leader at St. Peter's Basilica before his funeral on April 8. He also issued several unprecedented apologies to groups that historically had been wronged by Catholics, most notably Jews and Muslims. The school was closed the next year by Nazi troops during the German occupation of Poland. On 3 May 1981, an attempt was made on Pope John Paul II's life in Saint Peter's Square. In 1958 Pope Pius XII appointed him an auxiliary bishop of Kraków. When St. John Paul II died in 2005 after nearly 27 years on the papal throne, his funeral drew millions to St. Peter's Square. During the next decade he completed a second doctorate, taught theology and ethics at the Jagiellonian University, and eventually was appointed to a full professorship at the Catholic University of Lublin. The Soviet SCAM had collapsed along with the Iron Curtain. A few years later, Lech Walesa was elected President of Poland. Fortunately, he was able to recover from his injuries and later forgave his attacker. But he was close to home when he faced the greatest threat to his life. Pope John Paul II gestures to the crowd at New York's Shea Stadium, Oct. 3, 1979. Wojtyła’s childhood coincided with the only period of freedom that Poland would know between 1772 and 1989: the two decades between Marshal Józef Piłsudski’s defeat of the Soviet Red Army in 1920 and the German invasion in 1939. Allow the light and the healing presence of Christ to shine brightly through your lives. Born in Poland, John Paul II was the first non-Italian pope since the Dutch Pope Adrian VI, who served from 1522 to 1523. I put it in the ground early this summer and, despite fierce attacks from Japaneese Beetles the rose has grown to about 4 times it's original size. Pope John Paul II Faith Courage Fear Marriage is an act of will that signifies and involves a mutual gift, which unites the spouses and binds them to their eventual souls, with whom they make up a sole family - a domestic church. Learn more about his life and papacy. By the autumn of 1942 he had decided to enter the priesthood. His poor handling of Bloody Sunday and Russia’s role in World War I led to his abdication and execution. In 1981 Pope John Paul II suffered severe wounds when he was shot as he entered St. Peter's Square to address a general audience. Karol J. Wojtyla, known as John Paul II since his October 1978 election to the papacy, was born in Wadowice, a small city 50 kilometres from Cracow, on May 18, 1920. During his time of leadership, he united Greece, reestablished the Corinthian League and conquered the Persian Empire. Omissions? Pope John Paul II was ordained in 1946, became the bishop of Ombi in 1958, and became the archbishop of Krakow in 1964. He was canonized in 2014. 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